Open Foot Stance Reduces Lead Knee Joint Loading During Golf Swing
Foot stance and club type's relationship with lead knee joint biomechanics and possible involvement with injury incidences in amateur golfers have not been evaluated. This study included 16 male right-handed amateur golfers who performed golf swings with 2 different foot stances (straight and open) using 4 different club types (driver, 3 iron, 6 iron, and 9 iron) while standing on 2 force plates in a motion capture laboratory. A custom program calculated the kinematics and kinetics of the lead knee. Overall, the open stance reduced most translations, rotations, forces, and torques of the lead knee in all 4 club types when compared with the straight stance. The open stance reduced the rotation motion (-28%), compressive force (-5%), and rotation torque (-9%) when compared with the straight stance, which are the highest contributors to grinding of cartilage. The driver club had significantly larger values in most translations, rotations, forces, and torques when compared among the 4 club types. The open stance reduced the rotation motion, compressive force, and rotation torque in the lead knee joint compared with the straight stance. Lead knee joint biomechanics should be monitored to reduce injury in amateur golfers.
Within- and Between-Session Reliability of Golf Swing Variables Using the TrackMan Launch Monitor in Talented Golfers
Shaw, J, Gould, ZI, Oliver, JL, and Lloyd, RS. Within- and between-session reliability of golf swing variables using the TrackMan launch monitor in talented golfers. J Strength Cond Res 37(12): 2431-2437, 2023-The purpose of the current study was to establish the within- and between-session reliability of the TrackMan launch monitor to measure golf swing variables. Twenty-one golfers attended 2 test sessions, with data captured from 3 golf shots using a 6-iron and 3 using a driver. Club head speed (CHS), ball speed, smash factor, attack angle, club path, launch angle, spin rate, spin axis, carry distance, and total distance were determined from data collected using a TrackMan launch monitor. Within- and between-session reliability for each variable was calculated using repeated-measures analysis of variance, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and coefficients of variation (CVs) with 95% confidence intervals. Within-session measures of CHS, ball speed, carry distance, and total distance were found to be reliable for both 6-iron and driver (CV ≤ 5.8, ICC ≥ 0.87) and launch angle for the 6-iron (CV = 6.7-9.3%, ICC = 0.87-0.92). Between-session measures of CHS, ball speed, smash factor, launch angle, carry distance, and total distance for both 6-iron and driver (CV% = 0.7-9.1%, ICC = 0.5-0.99) and spin rate for 6-iron (CV% = 9.4%, ICC = 0.89) were also shown to be reliable. These findings indicate that the TrackMan launch monitor is a reliable method for measuring CHS, ball speed, carry distance, and total distance in talented golfers, both within and between sessions. Practitioners can confidently use these variables to assess golf swing performance in golfers and evaluate meaningful changes in response to training interventions.
What differences exist between the lead and trail wrist in extensor carpi ulnaris activity and golf swing joint kinematics in sub-elite golfers?
This study assessed the lead and trail arm peak and average extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) muscle activity in association with tri-planar angular velocities of the lead and trail wrists during the golf swing. Fifteen sub-elite, male right-handed golfers ( = 34.7 years ±13.3, = 1.5 ± 2.2) were recruited to execute five shots each with their pitching wedge, 7-iron and driver clubs in an indoor golf simulator. Surface electromyography (EMG) sensors were placed over the ECU muscle belly and inertial measurement unit sensors were placed bi-laterally on the distal forearm and dorsum of the hand. There was a statistically greater recruitment of the trail ECU muscle during the downswing ( < 0.001) for all clubs. The lead ECU muscle was recruited more during the backswing ( < 0.001) and follow through ( < 0.024) phases. There were statistically different tri-planar movement patterns between the lead and trail wrist throughout all three phases of the golf swing. No significant relationships were found between downswing EMG data and clubhead kinematics at impact. In conclusion, differing wrist kinematics and associated muscle activity may contribute to the asymmetrical injury pattern seen clinically.
Validation of Inertial Measurement Units for Analyzing Golf Swing Rotational Biomechanics
Training devices to enhance golf swing technique are increasingly in demand. Golf swing biomechanics are typically assessed in a laboratory setting and not readily accessible. Inertial measurement units (IMUs) offer improved access as they are wearable, cost-effective, and user-friendly. This study investigates the accuracy of IMU-based golf swing kinematics of upper torso and pelvic rotation compared to lab-based 3D motion capture. Thirty-six male and female professional and amateur golfers participated in the study, nine in each sub-group. Golf swing rotational kinematics, including upper torso and pelvic rotation, pelvic rotational velocity, S-factor (shoulder obliquity), O-factor (pelvic obliquity), and X-factor were compared. Strong positive correlations between IMU and 3D motion capture were found for all parameters; Intraclass Correlations ranged from 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.89, 0.93) for O-factor to 1.00 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.00) for upper torso rotation; Pearson coefficients ranged from 0.92 (95% CI: 0.92, 0.93) for O-factor to 1.00 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.00) for upper torso rotation ( < 0.001 for all). Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated good agreement between the two methods; absolute mean differences ranged from 0.61 to 1.67 degrees. Results suggest that IMUs provide a practical and viable alternative for golf swing analysis, offering golfers accessible and wearable biomechanical feedback to enhance performance. Furthermore, integrating IMUs into golf coaching can advance swing analysis and personalized training protocols. In conclusion, IMUs show significant promise as cost-effective and practical devices for golf swing analysis, benefiting golfers across all skill levels and providing benchmarks for training.
Lower Body Joint Moments during the Golf Swing in Older Adults: Comparison to Other Activities of Daily Living
Golf participation has increased dramatically in the last several years. With this increase in participation, clinicians need better evidenced based strategies to advise those golfers with different pathologies when it is safe to return to the game. Golf teaching professionals also need to understand how to alter golf mechanics to protect injured and/or diseased joints in golfers to allow them to play pain free and avoid further injury. This study used a 3-dimensional link segment model to calculate the net joint moments on the large lower limb joints (knee and hip) during golf (lead and trail leg) and two commonly studied activities of daily living (gait and sit-to-stand) in 22 males, healthy, adult golfers. It also examined the correlations between these knee and hip joint loads and club head speed. The external valgus knee moment and the internal hip adduction moment were greater in the lead leg in golf than in the other activities and were also correlated with club head speed. This indicates a strategy of using the frontal plane GRF moment during the swing. The internal hip extension and knee flexion moment were also greater in the golf swing as compared with the other activities and the hip extension moment was also correlated with club head speed. This emphasizes the importance of hip extensor (i.e., gluteus maximus and hamstring) muscle function in golfers, especially in those emphasizing the use of anterior-posterior ground reaction forces (i.e., the pivoting moment). The golf swing places some loads on the knee and the hip that are much different than the loads during gait and sit-to-stand tasks. Knowledge of these golf swing loads can help both the clinician and golf professional provide better evidence-based advice to golfers in order to keep them healthy and avoid future pain/injury.
Can a Computational Model Predict the Effect of Lesion Location on Cam-type Hip Impingement?
The Warwick consensus defined femoroacetabular impingement syndrome as a motion-related clinical disorder of the hip with a triad of symptoms, clinical signs, and imaging findings representing symptomatic premature contact between the proximal femur and acetabulum. Several factors appear to cause labral and cartilage damage, including joint shape and orientation and patient activities. There is a lack of tools to predict impingement patterns in a patient across activities. Current computational modeling tools either measure pure ROM of the joint or include complexity that reduces reliability and increases time to achieve a solution.
Immediate Effects of Foam Roller and Stretching to the Lead Hip on Golfers Swing: A Randomized Crossover Trial
Golfers with decreased range of motion (ROM) of their leading hip internal rotation (IR) have increased lumbar rotation ROM and load. This study investigated the effects of foam roller (FR) applied to their leading hip muscles combined with stretching to the leading hip together with lumbar rotation ROM during the golf swing. The study design was a crossover design. Subjects were allocated to one of two groups comprising FR and dynamic stretching (FR + DS) or practice swing. Motion analysis was used to evaluate hip and lumbar angles during the golf swing. Data were compared using analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction using paired -test's post hoc. The association between lead hip IR angle and lumbar spine left rotation (Lrot) angle was investigated using correlation analysis. Lead hip IR ROM during the golf swing was significantly greater in the FR + DS group ( = 0.034). The FR + DS group showed a moderate negative correlation between lead hip IR ROM and lower lumbar spine Lrot ROM during the golf swing ( = -0.522). The application of FR + DS might be useful to increase lead hip IR angle during the golf swing. Moreover, the application of FR + DS improves lead hip IR angle and may decrease lumbar spine rotation.
Biomechanical Analysis of Golf Swing Motion Using Hilbert-Huang Transform
In golf swing analysis, high-speed cameras and Trackman devices are traditionally used to collect data about the club, ball, and putt. However, these tools are costly and often inaccessible to golfers. This research proposes an alternative solution, employing an affordable inertial motion capture system to record golf swing movements accurately. The focus is discerning the differences between motions producing straight and slice trajectories. Commonly, the opening motion of the body's left half and the head-up motion are associated with a slice trajectory. We employ the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) to examine these motions in detail to conduct a biomechanical analysis. The gathered data are then processed through HHT, calculating their instantaneous frequency and amplitude. The research found discernible differences between straight and slice trajectories in the golf swing's moment of impact within the instantaneous frequency domain. An average golfer, a single handicapper, and three beginner golfers were selected as the subjects in this study and analyzed using the proposed method, respectively. For the average golfer, the head and the left leg amplitudes of the swing motions increase at the moment of impact of the swings, resulting in the slice trajectory. These results indicate that an opening of the legs and head-up movements have been detected and extracted as non-linear frequency components, reviewing the biomechanical meaning in slice trajectory motion. For the single handicapper, the hip and left arm joints could be the target joints to detect the biomechanical motion that triggered the slice trajectory. For the beginners, since their golf swing forms were not finalized, the biomechanical motions regarding slice trajectory were different from each swing, indicating that beginner golfers need more practice to fix their golf swing form first. These results revealed that our proposed framework applied to different golf levels and could help golfers to improve their golf swing skills to achieve straight trajectories.
Republication of "Keeping It in the Fairway: Golf Handicap Following Total Ankle Arthroplasty"
Total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) provides a surgical alternative to tibiotalar arthrodesis when treating end-stage ankle arthritis. TAA preserves range of motion at the tibiotalar joint leading to improved postoperative function. Many patients who undergo TAA wish to maintain a high level of activity, including participation in low-impact sports such as golf. There are several studies in the total hip and total knee arthroplasty literature that have looked at the effect of total joint arthroplasty on golf handicap. We hypothesized that similar to hip and knee arthroplasty research, TAA is likely to result in a postoperative increase in golf handicap.
Movement kinematic and postural control differences when performing a visuomotor skill in real and virtual environments
Immersive technologies, like virtual and mixed reality, pose a novel challenge for our sensorimotor systems as they deliver simulated sensory inputs that may not match those of the natural environment. These include reduced fields of view, missing or inaccurate haptic information, and distortions of 3D space; differences that may impact the control of motor actions. For instance, reach-to-grasp movements without end-point haptic feedback are characterised by slower and more exaggerated movements. A general uncertainty about sensory input may also induce a more conscious form of movement control. We tested whether a more complex skill like golf putting was also characterized by more consciously controlled movement. In a repeated-measures design, kinematics of the putter swing and postural control were compared between (i) real-world putting, (ii) VR putting, and (iii) VR putting with haptic feedback from a real ball (i.e., mixed reality). Differences in putter swing were observed both between the real world and VR, and between VR conditions with and without haptic information. Further, clear differences in postural control emerged between real and virtual putting, with both VR conditions characterised by larger postural movements, which were more regular and less complex, suggesting a more conscious form of balance control. Conversely, participants actually reported less conscious awareness of their movements in VR. These findings highlight how fundamental movement differences may exist between virtual and natural environments, which may pose challenges for transfer of learning within applications to motor rehabilitation and sport.
Development of body composition, lower body physical characteristics and clubhead speed in skilled junior golfers
The physical characteristics of golfers have a strong relationship with the clubhead speed (CHS), which is the main indicator of energy produced during a golf swing. However, perennial observations of development in CHS, physical characteristics, and body composition, and their long-term effects on CHS are lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the lower body physical characteristics and body composition parameters and their relationship with clubhead speed during one and over a two-year period in junior golfers.
Etiology and Prevention of Common Injuries in Golf
Golf is a popular sport played by individuals of varying age and skillsets. The golf swing is unique and complex, creating potential for various musculoskeletal injuries in both amateur and professional golfers. Understanding the basic biomechanics of the golf swing and its relation to injury etiology can assist the health care provider in recognizing and preventing musculoskeletal injuries secondary to golf. Most injuries occur in the upper limb and the lumbar spine. This review describes musculoskeletal pathologies seen in golfers with respect to anatomic area and golf swing biomechanics, while summarizing effective prevention strategies and swing modifications to address these potential injuries.
Reverse dynamics analysis of contact force and muscle activities during the golf swing after total hip arthroplasty
There are no reports on hip kinetics including contact forces and muscle activities during the golf swing after total hip arthroplasty (THA). The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of three-dimensional dynamics during the golf swing. Ten unilateral primary THA patients participated in motion capture test of their driver golf swing. The driver swing produced approximately 20-30° of rotation in both lead and trail replaced hips. The mean hip contact forces (HCFs) of lead and trail replaced hips were 5.1 and 6.6 × body weight, respectively. Left and right THAs showed similar HCFs of lead and trail hips. More than 60% of the Percent maximum voluntary isometric contraction was found in bilateral iliopsoas muscles in all unilateral THA. Three factors [female sex, lower modified Harris Hip Score, and higher HCF of surgical side] were associated with the golf-related replacement hip pain. Golf is an admissible sport after THA because driver swings do not contribute excessive rotation or contact forces to hip prostheses. HCF could be reduced through swing adjustments, which may allow patients with golf-related replacement hip pain to develop a comfortable golf game free from pain.
Can you maintain a competitive golf swing after total shoulder arthroplasty?
Return to sports after joint arthroplasty is mainly evaluated for lower limbs procedures. When a return to a specific sport is mentioned, no technical approach nor level consideration are specified. We suggested that patients who undergo total shoulder arthroplasty will be able to maintain playing golf at same high level.
Relationship of Clubhead Speed With Explosive Power and Muscle Strength of the Hip and Trunk Joints of Elite Golfers
Suhara, H, Nariai, M, Takagi, T, Akiyama, K, Nagashima, J, and Shiraki, H. Relationship of clubhead speed with explosive power and muscle strength of the hip and trunk joints of elite golfers. J Strength Cond Res 37(4): 859-865, 2023-In golf, the driving distance of the ball is affected by the clubhead speed (CHS) on impact. We aimed to clarify the relationship between CHS and explosive power and muscle strength of the hip and trunk muscles in elite golfers (male age: 19.6 ± 1.9 years, male handicap: 4.4 ± 0.9, female age: 17.7 ± 1.4 years, and female handicap: 6.2 ± 0.7). A correlational design was used to assess the relationships between CHS and strength (hip extension-flexion and trunk rotation of peak torque at an isokinetic 60 and 180°·s -1 angular velocity) and CHS and power (countermovement jump [CMJ]; peak power and jump height; backward overhead medicine ball [BOMB] throw). Fourteen each of male and female elite golfers were included. The CHS during the golf swing was measured using a Doppler radar measurement device (Trackman). A correlation analysis between each measurement and CHS ( p ≤ 0.05) was conducted. We found that the peak torque of right hip extension at an angular velocity of 180°/s (male, r = 0.67; female, r = 0.61), peak CMJ power (male: r = 0.63, female: r = 0.75), and BOMB throw distance (male, r = 0.6; female, 0.6) were positively correlated with CHS in both male and female golfers. These results suggest that the extensor strength of the lower extremities and trunk, centered on the hip joint in the sagittal plane, is important for physical fitness and muscle strength measurement related to CHS. Conversely, concentric trunk rotator strength and CHS were not correlated, suggesting that concentric trunk rotator strength may not be actively involved in CHS.
Estimates of Golf-Related Upper Extremity Injuries in the United States: A 10-Year Epidemiology Study (2011-2020)
Golf is one of the most popular sports in the United States (US) and is played by participants of all ages and skill level. Given the popularity and sport-specific demands on the upper torso, golf poses a considerable risk for upper extremity (UE) injuries. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to (1) determine the incidence rate of UE golf injuries presenting to emergency departments (EDs) in the US, (2) determine the most commonly injured body parts and mechanisms of injury, and (3) compare current injury epidemiology with previous trends in the literature.
Do the Pelvic and Thorax Movements Differ between the Sexes and Influence Golf Club Velocity in Junior Golfers?
The aim of this study was to determine the differences in golf swing execution in terms of the parameters of the pelvis and thorax movement between the sexes in junior golfers and their relation to the golf club velocity. Elite female and male players (age: 15.4 ± 1.0 and 15.8 ± 1.7 years, respectively) performed 10 golf swings with a driver under laboratory conditions. Pelvis and thorax movement parameters and golf club velocities were measured using a three-dimensional motion capture system. Statistical parametric mapping analysis of pelvis-thorax coupling revealed a significant difference ( < 0.05) between boys and girls during backswing. Analysis of variance showed a significant effect of sex on the parameters of maximal pelvic rotation (F = 6.28, = 0.02), X-factor (F = 5.41, = 0.03), and golf club velocity (F = 31.98, < 0.01). No significant relationship was found between pelvis and thorax movement parameters and golf club velocity in the girls. We found a significant negative relationship between the parameters of maximal thorax rotation and golf club velocity (r = -0.941, < 0.01) and between X-Factor and golf club velocity (r = -0.847, < 0.05) in the boys. We suggest that these negative relationships in males were caused by the influence of hormones during their maturation and biological development, where there is decreased flexibility (lower shoulders rotation and X-factor) and growth of muscle strength (higher club head velocity).
Centre of pressure golf swing movement strategies are better defined using a continuous approach than by segregated styles
The relationships between movement style and golf performance have been well researched, but the premise of segregated movement styles has not been fully examined. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the postulation that centre of pressure data are not best described by segregated styles but instead by a continuum and to determine relationships between centre of pressure, handicap and clubhead speed using a continuous approach. Centre of pressure paths of driver and 5-iron shots from 104 amateur golfers were analysed using discrete and continuous methods. Discrete methods used different cluster evaluation criteria which result in two-cluster and twenty-cluster solutions being considered "optimum". The two-cluster solution showed the characteristics of "front-foot" and "reverse" centre of pressure styles. However, a continuous principal component analysis method revealed that the clusters were not well separated and provided support for a multidimensional continuum. The principal components had a high correlation with handicap and clubhead speed. Lower handicap and higher swing speed golfers tended to display a centre of pressure with a "front-foot" style and a fast transition towards the front foot at the start of the downswing. A continuous characterisation of centre of pressure styles has more utility than the segregated styles previously described.
The Influence of an 8-Week Strength and Corrective Exercise Intervention on the Overhead Deep Squat and Golf Swing Kinematics
Langdown, BL, Bridge, MW, and Li, F-X. The influence of an 8-week strength and corrective exercise intervention on the overhead deep squat and golf swing kinematics. J Strength Cond Res 37(2): 291-297, 2023-It has previously been suggested that performance of the overhead squat (OHS) is a useful predictor of loss of posture in the golf swing. Using an 8-week intervention to improve OHS performance, this study assessed this suggestion and analyzed the impact of any resultant physical adaptations on golf swing kinematics. Thirty-seven golfers (handicap = 14.8 ± 13.3) were randomly split into a control group ( n = 16) and an intervention group ( n = 21)-who completed an 8-week strength and flexibility program. Pre- and postintervention OHS assessments and 3-dimensional (3D) 6-iron swing kinematics were captured. The level of significance set for the study was p < 0.05. Despite the intervention group's significant improvement in OHS thigh angle ( p < 0.001), there were no significant changes in 3D swing kinematics between the groups and over pre- and posttesting for address ( p = 0.219), top of the backswing ( p = 0.977), and impact ( p = 0.994). In addition, regression analysis revealed that the 4 measured OHS variables were significant and small predictors of swing kinematic variables at the top of backswing and impact (ranging from R2 = 0.109 to R2 = 0.300). These may, however, be spurious relationships as swing changes could be expected following the intervention if they were indeed true predictors of the postural variables. The use of the OHS to understand the cause of loss of posture during the golf swing is therefore not recommended because many other variables could influence swing kinematics. It may, however, be a useful assessment tool for strength and range of movement, provided that any motor learning issues are resolved before results influencing conditioning programs.
Effects of Ground Slopes on Erector Spinae Muscle Activities and Characteristics of Golf Swing
(1) Background: 'Slope' refers to the position faced by golfers on the course. Research on the recruitment strategies of thoracolumbar erector spinae during golf swings on different slopes may help us to understand some underlying mechanisms of lower back pain. (2) Purpose: The purpose of the present study is to assess electromyography (EMG) patterns of the erector spinae muscles (ES) and the kinematics of the trunk and swing parameters while performing golf swings on three different ground slopes: (1) no slope where the ball is level with the feet (BLF), (2) a slope where the ball is above the feet (BAF), and (3) a slope where the ball is below the feet (BBF). Furthermore, the present study evaluates the effect of slope on the kinematics of the trunk, the X-factor angle, and the hitting parameters. (3) Methods: Eight right-handed recreational male golfers completed five swings using a seven-iron for each ground slope. Surface electromyograms from the left and right sides of the ES thoracolumbar region (T8 and L3 on the spinous process side) were evaluated. Each golf swing was divided into five phases. Kinematics of the shoulder, trunk, and spine were evaluated, and the ball speed, swing speed, carry, smash factor, launch angle, and apex were measured using Caddie SC300. (3) Results: The muscle activity of the BAF and BBF slopes was significantly lower than that of the BLF slope during the early follow-through phase of the thoracic ES on the lead side (i.e., left side) and during the acceleration and early follow-through phases of the lumbar ES on the lead side. The lead and trail side (i.e., right side) lumbar ES were more active during acceleration than the thoracic ES. Additionally, the trends of the lead and trail sides of the thoracolumbar regions on the three slopes were found to be the same across the five phases. Trunk angle and X-factor angles had no significant differences in address, top of backswing, or ball impact. The maximum separation angles of the X-factor appeared in the early phase of the downswing for all the three slopes. Regarding smash factor and launch angle, there were no significant differences between the three slopes. The ball speed, swing speed, carry, and apex were higher on BLF than on BAF and BBF slopes. (4) Conclusion: The findings suggest that amateur golfers face different slopes with altered muscle recruitment strategies. Specifically, during the acceleration phase of the golf swing, the BAF and the BBF slopes, compared with the BLF slope, significantly underactivated the lead side thoracolumbar erector spinae muscles, thereby increasing the risk of back injury. Changes in muscle activity during critical periods may affect neuromuscular deficits in high-handicap players and may have implications for the understanding and development of golf-related lower back pain. In addition, the X-factor angle was not affected by the slope, however, it can be found that the hitting parameters on the BLF slope are more dominant than on the other slopes.
Evaluation of Weight Shift and X-Factor During Golf Swing of Veterans With Lower Limb Loss
The purpose of this study was to assess the weight shift and X-Factor values of golfers with lower limb loss.
Upper Body Injuries in Golfers
Golf is a sport that can be played by an athlete of any age, which enhances its popularity. Each golfer's swing is unique, and there is no "right" way to swing the golf club; however, the professional golfer often has more of a consistent swing as opposed to an amateur golfer. A collaborative, team approach involving the golfer with a swing coach, physical therapist, and physician often can be informative on how to prevent golf injury, but also how to treat golf injury if it occurs.
Potential biomechanical risk factors on developing lead knee osteoarthritis in the golf swing
The load on the lead knee joint during a golf swing is greater than that observed during gait. However, current evidence regarding golf swing biomechanics for risks associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA) is limited. Therefore, this study investigated golf swing styles associated with knee adduction and abduction moments, which are considered to be crucial loading regions of the medial and lateral compartments of knee OA, respectively. Thirteen professional male golfers performed five shots using a 5-iron club, and their swings were recorded using a motion capture system with two force platforms for the feet. A regression analysis was performed to calculate the correlation coefficients between the peak knee adduction and abduction moments of the lead leg and varus/valgus angle, toe-out angle, stance width, weight transfer, and shoulder sway. Swinging with a narrower stance width at address (r = - 0.62, p = 0.02) with more weight shift (r = 0.66, p = 0.014) and shoulder sway (r = 0.79, p = 0.001) towards the target during the downswing were associated with a higher peak knee adduction of the lead leg, whereas a greater valgus angle at address (r = 0.60, p = 0.03) was associated with a higher peak knee abduction of the lead leg. Based on these findings, we anticipate future research to support postural changes, particularly a wider stance width and restricted shoulder sway for golfers who are classified to be at high risk of developing medial compartment knee OA, as well as a lower valgus (tibial medial tilt) angle at address for those classified to be at high risk of developing lateral compartment knee OA.
Test-Retest Reliability of Task Performance for Golf Swings of Medium- to High-Handicap Players
Background: Golf swing performance in medium- to high-handicap players must be reliably measured to use this variable in both research studies and in applied settings. Nevertheless, there are no studies published on this topic and test−retest evidence is only available for low-handicap players. The aim of this study was to determine the number of attempts necessary to obtain a reliable measurement protocol for swing performance variables in medium- to high-handicap players. Methods: Ten amateur players (55.67 (13.64) years, 78.4 (11.4) kg, 1.75 (7.95) m) took part in a test−retest study in two experimental sessions one week apart. In each one, fifteen swings with a six iron and a driver were evaluated with a 3D Doppler tracking golf radar. Results: The results showed that variables related to side carry could not be reliably measured in medium- to high-handicap players in only fifteen trials (ICC < 0.26, SEM > 12.05 m and MDC > 33.41 m). The rest of the performance variables related to the club and ball trajectories could be reliably measured with a 3D Doppler radar with between seven and ten swings. Conclusions: At least seven swings are recommended for the driver and ten for the six iron to measure golf swing performance.
The effect of upper body sprint interval training on golf drive performance
Improving golf fitness is one way to improve club head velocity and subsequently golf performance. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of a three-week upper-body sprint training (SIT) program on power output and golf performance.
Lower Quadrant Swing Biomechanics Identifies Golfers With Increased Risk of Low Back Pain: A Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study
Elite golfers have a high incidence of low back pain. Recent reviews have emphasized the need for investigation into how to prevent low back pain in golfers, prompting the current study.
Characteristics of hip joint reaction forces during a range of activities
The paper reports the characteristics of joint forces for 9 activities in 18 normal healthy subjects. Activities included Walk, Walk Turn, Stand to Sit, Sit to Stand, Squat, Stand Reach, Kneel Reach, Lunge, and Golf Swing. Within the cohort ∼30% variability occurred in the manner in which each activity was completed. Within the activities the average maximum load characteristics varied in magnitude (0.5-6.4 ρBWT) and also in duration (0.96-5.89 s.) when compared to walking (3.1 ρBWT,1.1 s.). The corresponding impulse ranged from 1.6 during the Walk to 6.7 ρ.BWT.s for the Golf Swing . As high loads with low sliding velocities have been shown in the literature to be damaging to the tribology of compliant contact surfaces the findings are postulated by the authors to be specifically important for the pre-clinical testing of cartilage substitutional materials. Note: Force was normalized to body weight (ρBWT) throughout the study.
Reducing Knee Joint Load during a Golf Swing: The Effects of Ball Position Modification at Address
As the modern golf swing has changed, the incidence of knee pain in professional golfers is increasing. For those with previous knee injuries, developing a golf-swing modification that reduces knee loading may be necessary to recover performance after injury. The purpose of this study was to test whether ball position modification reduces knee joint load in a golf swing. Thirteen male professional golfers participated in the study. Golf swings were captured using a three-dimensional motion capture system and two force platforms, with conditions for self-selected ball position and eight additional ball positions. Knee internal rotation and adduction moments were calculated. The length of one golf ball (4.27 cm) backward ball position (closer to the golfer) significantly reduced the peak internal rotation moment of the lead knee (- 13.8%) (p < 0.001) and the length of one golf ball (4.27 cm) away from the target ball position significantly reduced the peak adduction moment of the lead knee (- 11.5%) (p < 0.001) compared with that of the self-selected ball position. Based on these observations, we conclude that the backward ball position modification might be suggested for golfers with anterior cruciate ligament injuries, and the away from the target modification might be suggested for golfers with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis.
An evaluation of temporal and club angle parameters during golf swings using low cost video analyses packages
The purpose of this study was to compare swing time and golf club angle parameters during golf swings using three, two dimensional (2D) low cost, Augmented-Video-based-Portable-Systems (AVPS) (Kinovea, SiliconCoach Pro, SiliconCoach Live). Twelve right-handed golfers performed three golf swings whilst being recorded by a high-speed 2D video camera. Footage was then analysed using AVPS-software and the results compared using both descriptive and inferential statistics. There were no significant differences for swing time and the golf phase measurements between the 2D and 3D software comparisons. In general, the results showed a high Intra class Correlation Coefficient (ICC > 0.929) and Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha (CCA > 0.924) reliability for both the kinematic and temporal parameters. The inter-rater reliability test for the swing time and kinematic golf phase measurements on average were strong. Irrespective of the AVPS software investigated, the cost effective AVPS can produce reliable output measures that benefit golf analyses.
Providing Visual Biofeedback Using Brightness Mode Ultrasound During a Golf Swing
Using ultrasound biofeedback in conjunction with verbal cueing can increase muscle thickness more than verbal cueing alone and may augment traditional rehabilitation techniques in an athletic, physically active population. Brightness mode (B-mode) ultrasound can be applied using frame-by-frame analysis synchronized with video to understand muscle thickness changes during these dynamic tasks. Visual biofeedback with ultrasound has been established in static positions for the muscles of the lateral abdominal wall. However, by securing the transducer to the abdomen using an elastic belt and foam block, biofeedback can be applied during more specific tasks prevalent in lifetime sports, such as golf. To analyze muscle activity during a golf swing, muscle thickness changes can be compared. The thickness must increase throughout the task, indicating that the muscle is more active. This methodology allows clinicians to immediately replay ultrasound videos for patients as a visual tool to instruct proper activity of the muscles of interest. For example, ultrasound can be used to target the external and internal obliques, which play an important role in swinging a golf club or any other rotational sport or activity. This methodology aims to increase oblique muscle thickness during the golf swing. Additionally, the timing of muscle contraction can be targeted by instructing the patient to contract the abdominal muscles at specific time points, such as the beginning of the downswing, with the goal of improving muscle firing patterns during tasks.
The effectiveness of a golf injury prevention program (GRIPP intervention) compared to the usual warm-up in Dutch golfers: protocol design of a randomized controlled trial
Sixty million golfers around the world play golf. Golf injuries are most frequently located in the spine, elbow, wrist, hand and shoulder. Those injuries are often seen in golfers with more playing hours and suboptimal swing biomechanics, resulting in overuse injuries. Golfers who do not perform a warm-up or do not warm-up appropriately are more likely to report an injury than those who do. There are several ways to warm-up. It is unclear, which warm-up is most useful for a golfer to perform. Moreover, there is currently no evidence for the effectiveness of a warm-up program for golf injury prevention. We previously have developed the Golf Related Injury Prevention Program (GRIPP) intervention using the Knowledge Transfer Scheme (KTS). We aim to evaluate the effect of the GRIPP intervention on golf-related injuries. The hypothesis is that the GRIPP intervention program will reduce the number of golf-related injuries.
Differences in kinematics and driver performance in elite female and male golfers
The aim of this study was to compare swing kinematic differences between women and men and investigate which variables predict clubhead speed (CHS) and carry distance (CD) whilst accounting for individual variation.
Vertebral Fracture in an Elderly Golfer
Golf is one of the most popular sports among seniors. Here, we report the case of a 76-year-old woman who developed a vertebral fracture while playing golf. The patient had been suffering from leg pain for several years but developed sudden back pain after her golf swing. Because magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a new vertebral fracture of the L1 vertebral body and canal stenosis at the L4/5 level, she successfully underwent L1 vertebroplasty and L4/5 decompression. For older golfers, a classical swing that twists the pelvis and shoulders at the same time may be recommended.
Injuries associated with golf: A qualitative study
Golf is a popular sport played worldwide. The majority of professional golfers work as teaching professionals based at golf clubs. All professional players spend numerous hours on the golf course, placing themselves at increased risk of injury. There have been no recent, large studies investigating injury patterns among male and female professional golfers.
Golf Swing Biomechanics: A Systematic Review and Methodological Recommendations for Kinematics
Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate golf swing performance in both preventing injury and injury occurrence. The objective of this review was to describe state-of-the-art golf swing biomechanics, with a specific emphasis on movement kinematics, and when possible, to suggest recommendations for research methodologies. Keywords related to biomechanics and golf swings were used in scientific databases. Only articles that focused on golf-swing kinematics were considered. In this review, 92 articles were considered and categorized into the following domains: X-factor, crunch factor, swing plane and clubhead trajectory, kinematic sequence, and joint angular kinematics. The main subjects of focus were male golfers. Performance parameters were searched for, but the lack of methodological consensus prevented generalization of the results and led to contradictory results. Currently, three-dimensional approaches are commonly used for joint angular kinematic investigations. However, recommendations by the International Society of Biomechanics are rarely considered.
Effects of Upper-Body Flexibility Exercise on Golf Performance of Amateur Female Golfer: A Case Report
BACKGROUND We investigated the effects of the upper-body flexibility exercises on the golf performance of a female amateur golfer. CASE REPORT The participant was a 43-year-old woman who performed a general golf swing exercise (30 min) and an upper-body flexibility exercise (20 min) 3 times a week, for a total of 6 times in 2 weeks. The maximum rotation angle of the upper body was measured using a goniometer. To measure the X-factor, the numerical value was measured after subtracting the rotation angle of the lower-body from the rotation angle of the upper body when the participant stopped making a back-swing top motion. A camera measuring instrument was used to measure the clubhead speed and carry distance of the golf ball when she hit the ball with a no. 7 iron club. After the exercises, the maximum rotation angle of the participant's upper body increased from 40° to 69°, and the X-factor increased from 10° to 24°. The clubhead speed increased from 29.4 m/s to 34.4 m/s, and the carry distance increased from 84 m to 106 m. CONCLUSIONS The participant responded positively to the upper-body flexibility exercises, and there was improved upper-body mobility, X-factor, clubhead speed, and carry distance. Our results showed that upper-body flexibility exercises with a general golf swing exercise for female amateur golfers may improve golf performance.
Increased trunk muscle recruitment during the golf swing is linked to developing lower back pain: A prospective longitudinal cohort study
This is the first study that presents electromyographic measurements prior to the development of lower back pain in young elite golfers.
An ecological-dynamical approach to golf science: implications for swing biomechanics, club design and customisation, and coaching practice
It has previously been argued that science has only made a limited contribution to the sport of golf, particularly the human element. This lack of impact could, in part, be attributed to the absence of an appropriate theoretical framework in most empirical investigations of the golf swing. This position paper outlines an ecological-dynamical approach to golf science that is better able to capture the interactions among the many structural parts of a golfer, and the relations between a golfer, his or her equipment, and his or her surrounding environment than other theoretical approaches have hitherto. It is proposed that the conjoining of principles and concepts of ecological psychology and dynamical systems theory could make a significant contribution to the enhancement of knowledge and understanding of swing biomechanics, club design and customisation, and coaching practice. This approach could also provide a platform on which to integrate the various subdisciplines of sport and human movement science to gain a more holistic understanding of golf performance.
Is Golf a Contact Sport? Protection of the Spine and Return to Play After Lumbar Surgery
Three-dimensional kinematics in healthy older adult males during golf swings
The biomechanics of the golf swing have received considerable attention in previous research. However, existing studies have focused on young athletes, while the kinematics of older golfers remain poorly documented. This study presents kinematic data for healthy senior golfers during swings performed with a driver and six-iron. Seventeen male golfers (62.2 ± 8.8 years) volunteered for participation and a 10-camera Vicon system (Oxford, UK) recorded kinematic data (500 Hz). A launch monitor (TrackMan, Vedbæk, Denmark) recorded club head speed and initial ball speed. Joint angles and peak velocities of the trunk and lower body were extracted at the top of the backswing, ball contact, and end of the swing. Intraclass correlations and standard error of measurement determined reliability, and pairwise statistics determined between-club differences. Swings with the driver had 7.3° less trunk extension and 4.3° less X-factor at backswing, and 10.5° less trunk flexion and 3.2° less X-factor at ball impact. Older adults portray several differences in lower body kinematics between a six-iron and driver but maintain good to excellent reliability (0.728-0.997) during the swings. Comparisons with previous research also showed senior athletes produce slower club head and ball speeds than younger golfers, and that kinematic differences exist between the populations.
Importance of Transverse Plane Flexibility for Proficiency in Golf
McHugh, MP, O'Mahoney, CA, Orishimo, KF, Kremenic, IJ, and Nicholas, SJ. Importance of transverse plane flexibility for proficiency in golf. J Strength Cond Res 36(2): e49-e54, 2022-The extent to which the flexibility requirements for golf proficiency vary between the planes of motion has not been examined. The purpose of this study was to compare flexibility between proficient and average golfers with the hypothesis that proficient golfers have greater transverse plane flexibility than average golfers, with no differences in the sagittal and frontal planes. Twenty-five male golfers were categorized as proficient (handicap ≤5, n = 13) or average (handicap 10-20, n = 12). Fourteen flexibility tests were performed (4 shoulder tests, 4 trunk tests, and 6 hip tests) with tests in all 3 planes of motion for each body segment. In addition, trunk motion, pelvic motion, and hip motion during the golf swing were assessed with high-speed motion analysis. Ball speed and shot distance were recorded with a golf simulator. Proficient golfers had significantly better flexibility than average golfers in the transverse plane (shoulder p = 0.021, trunk p = 0.003, and hip p < 0.0001), with no differences in the sagittal plane or frontal plane (plane of motion by golf proficiency p = 0.0001). Transverse plane hip flexibility accounted for 48% of the variability in ball speed (p < 0.0001) and 45% of the variability in total distance (p = 0.001). During the golf swing, proficient golfers had greater separation between the pelvis and the trunk (x-factor) than average golfers (p = 0.002). In conclusion, transverse plane flexibility in the trunk and hips is an important requirement for golf proficiency. Sagittal plane flexibility and frontal plane flexibility were unrelated to proficiency. Developing and maintaining trunk and hip rotation flexibility is important for optimizing performance.
Laterality and performance: Are golfers learning to play backwards?
When using a bimanual tool to strike an object, most people place their preferred hand closer to the striking end. In sports, a player is deemed to adopt a "right- or left-handed" stance depending on the hand that is lower on the club or bat. Research has suggested there is an advantage in going against this convention by placing the preferred hand at the top in a "reversed-stance". This study aimed to establish if the reversed-stance advantage exists in golf, whether it is underpinned by the preferred hand or dominant eye, and why players adopt such a stance. We tested hand preference, eye dominance, and full swing stance in 150 golfers (30 for each handicap category) and conducted follow-up interviews with 12 reversed-stance players. Professional or category 1 golfers were 21.5 times more likely to adopt a reversed-stance. The advantage could not be explained by ambidexterity or the dominant eye but could be explained by the position of the preferred hand. Reversed-stance players cited a variety of reasons for adopting it and were more likely to display a left-hand preference. Findings offer initial evidence of a reversed-stance advantage in golf and can inform work identifying its origins and mechanisms.
Physical Determinants of Golf Swing Performance: A Review
Sheehan, WB, Bower, RG, and Watsford, ML. Physical determinants of golf swing performance: A review. J Strength Cond Res 36(1): 289-297, 2022-Traditionally, golf practice has primarily focused on the mental, technical, and skill aspects as the primary means to improve performance. Only recently has a greater emphasis been placed on the physical components with balance, muscular strength, power, and specific muscle-tendon properties demonstrating positive associations with club head speed and carry distance. Accordingly, this review will explore the influence of these physical components on measures of golf swing performance. Superior balance may allow players to effectively deal with the need to shift weight during the swing as well as different stance positions, whereas superior lower-body muscular strength, power, and stiffness may allow more mechanical work to be performed on the club during the swing per unit of time, consequently increasing club head speed. Alternatively, flexibility may also contribute to enhanced force production with a greater range of motion, particularly when generating the "X-factor," allowing for a longer backswing and more time to produce higher angular velocities and forces. Furthermore, training intervention studies focusing on the aforementioned components have demonstrated enhancements in swing performance. Targeting multiple muscle groups, including those implicated via electromyography activation, and utilizing multiple modalities have proven effective at increasing club head speed. However, such multifaceted programs have made it difficult to determine the mechanisms that specifically contribute to performance gains. Despite these limitations, strength, power, and musculotendinous stiffness, particularly in the lower body, seem to be stronger determinants of club head speed and carry distance than flexibility. Furthermore, acute improvements can be induced using resistance-orientated warm-ups.
Linear Relationships Among the Hand and Clubhead Motion Characteristics in Golf Driving in Skilled Male Golfers
The purpose of this study was to investigate the linear relationships among the hand/clubhead motion characteristics in golf driving in skilled male golfers (n = 66; handicap ≤ 3). The hand motion plane (HMP) and functional swing plane (FSP) angles, the HMP-FSP angle gaps, the planarity characteristics of the off-plane motion of the clubhead, and the attack angles were computed from the drives captured by an optical motion capture system. The HMP angles were identified as the key variables, as the HMP and FSP angles were intercorrelated, but the plane angle gaps, the planarity bias, and the attack angles showed correlations to the HMP angles primarily. Three main swing pattern clusters were identified. The parallel HMP-FSP alignment pattern with a small direction gap was associated with neutral planarity and planar swing pattern. The inward alignment pattern with a large inward direction gap was characterized by flat planes, follow-through-centric planarity, spiral swing pattern, and inward/downward impact. The outward alignment pattern with a large outward direction gap was associated with steep planes, downswing-centric planarity, reverse spiral swing, and outward/upward impact. The findings suggest that practical drills targeting the hand motion pattern can be effective in holistically reprogramming the swing pattern.
Positive Relationships Between Golf Performance Variables and Upper Body Power Capabilities
Sorbie GG, Glen J, and Richardson AK Positive relationships between golf performance variables and upper body power capabilities. J Strength Cond Res 35(12S): S97-S102, 2021-The importance of lower body and trunk strength and power, as well as upper body strength in golf is well documented; however, the relationship between upper body power and golf performance has yet to be determined. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to investigate the relationships between golf performance and upper body power. Thirteen golfers (mean ± SD: age: 30 ± 7 years and handicap: 6.1 ± 4.9) participated in the study. Club head velocity (CHV) and ball velocity were measured during the golf test. To assess upper body power, subjects completed a ballistic bench press and upper body Wingate test. Pearson product-moment correlations were used to assess the relationships between golf performance and upper body power. The results demonstrated that there were strong relationships between ballistic bench press and CHV and ball velocity when using the driver (r > 0.6-0.7), and moderate-to-strong relationships (r > 0.4-0.6) when using the 7-iron. Strong relationships were found between the upper body Wingate test and CHV and ball velocity (r > 0.5-0.8) when using the driver and 7-iron. As a result of the findings, strength and conditioning coaches may use both the ballistic bench press test and the Wingate test as a primary assessment to measure the effectiveness of upper body training interventions with the aim of improving golf performance. Although, when performing the golf swings at higher velocities (i.e., with the driver), the ballistic bench press may be more beneficial.
The effect of uphill and downhill slopes on centre of pressure movement, alignment and shot outcome in mid-handicap golfers
The aim of the study was to examine changes in centre of pressure (COP) movement, alignment and shot outcome during golf shots from flat, uphill, and downhill slopes by mid-handicap golfers. Twelve male golfers hit balls with a six-iron from the flat and 5° slopes while kinematics and kinetics of the swing were collected. A launch monitor measured performance outcomes. A shift in the COP was found during the backswing when playing on a slope, but disappeared during the downswing. Golfers attempted to align the body perpendicular to the slope at the start of the swing resulting in COP movement towards the lower foot, but were not able to maintain this throughout the swing, like low handicap golfers. There was no significant difference in stance width, but golfers placed the ball closer to the uphill foot on a slope. Ball speed was not significantly affected by the slope, but launch angle and ball spin were. Golfers were more likely to hit shots to the left from an uphill slope and to the right for a downhill slope. No consistent compensatory adjustments in alignment at address were found, with differences in final ball position due to lateral spin.
The Acute Effects From the Use of Weighted Implements on Skill Enhancement in Sport: A Systematic Review
Jermyn, S, Neill, CO, and Coughlan, EK. The acute effects from the use of weighted implements on skill enhancement in sport: A systematic review. J Strength Cond Res 35(10): 2922-2935, 2021-Weighted implements are used before competitive performance with the aim of enhancing motor skill execution on return to the standard implement. The purpose of this review was to analyze the existing literature pertaining to the acute effects of weighted implements on respective sporting performance. Following a systematic screening process, 25 studies were identified. This review highlighted the effects of (a) weighted balls and bats on throwing and batting performance and (b) indoor weight throw implements on indoor weight throw performance. Studies reported conflicting effects on immediate performance post-warm-up with the respective implements. Notably, although overweighted bats and overweight attachments are a prominent preparatory tool in baseball, this review found consistent and repeated evidence of degraded batting performance in striking-based studies. Decreased bat velocity, altered swing patterns, subjective-objective mismatches of bat speed and weight, temporal accuracy errors, and inadequate recalibration to the standard bat were identified as acute effects. This review identified an obvious dearth of research into the acute effects of weighted implements on motor skills in other sports with equally complex perceptual motor patterns, such as football (soccer), golf, rugby, basketball, and American football. Future weighted implement research should investigate the acute effects of respective implements on motor skill performance in other sports, such as those aforementioned, with the purpose of exploring relevant implications for preparatory strategies and immediate performance on return to the standard implement.
Sonification of Golf Putting Gesture Reduces Swing Movement Variability in Novices
: To study whether novices can use sonification to enhance golf putting performance and swing movements. : Forty participants first performed a series of 2 m and 4 m putts, where swing velocities associated with successful trials were used to calculate their mean velocity profile (MVP). Participants were then divided into four groups with different auditory conditions: static pink noise unrelated to movement, auditory guidance based on personalized MVP, and two sonification strategies that mapped the real-time error between observed and MVP swings to modulate either the stereo display or roughness of the auditory guidance signal. Participants then performed a series of 2 m and 4 m putts with the auditory condition designated to their group. : In general our results showed significant correlations between swing movement variability and putting performance for all sonification groups. More specifically, in comparison to the group exposed to static pink noise, participants who were presented auditory guidance significantly reduced the deviation from their average swing movement. In addition, participants exposed to error-based sonification with stereo display modulation significantly lowered their variability in timing swing movements. These results provide further evidence of the benefits of sonification for novices performing complex motor skill tasks. : More importantly, our findings suggest participants were able to better use online error-based sonification rather than auditory guidance to reduce variability in the execution and timing of their movements.
Dynamics of pelvis rotation about its longitudinal axis during the golf swing
The purpose of this study was to identify the dynamic factors contributing to pelvis angular velocity about its longitudinal axis (pelvis axial angular velocity) during the golf swing. Thirty-one right-handed skilled golfers (handicap, 3.5 ± 1.8) performed swings with a driver. The kinematic and kinetic data were collected using an optical motion analysis system and two force platforms. The dynamic factors (i.e., joint torque, gravitational force, motion-dependent forces and inertia forces) contributing to pelvis axial angular acceleration were calculated. The present study revealed that the left (lead) hip flexor and adductor torques as well as the right (trail) hip extensor and abductor torques were identified as the main contributors to pelvis axial angular velocity. These hip joint torques contributed not synchronously but sequentially to the pelvis. Although the knee joint torques contributed little to pelvis axial angular velocity directly, the knee joint torques might support the generation of large hip joint torques by regulating joint postures. These findings indicate that the functional coordination of the lower limb segments as well as the magnitude of the joint torques play an important role in rotating the pelvis.
Vertebral Artery Dissection in a Woman Due to Golf: An Under Recognized Etiology
Traditionally, spontaneous cervical artery dissections have been associated with violent, sudden neck movements. These events are a significant cause of stroke related morbidity, particularly in young people. Only a handful of cases of golf-induced vertebral artery dissection (VAD) have been described, and the discussion has primarily focused on middle-aged men. Despite the discussion focused on this demographic, women are participating in golf at higher rates than ever before, and have a higher risk for developing VAD.
Injury risk-factor differences between two golf swing styles: a biomechanical analysis of the lumbar spine, hip and knee
The golf swing has been associated with mechanical injury risk factors at many joints. One swing, the Minimalist Golf Swing, was hypothesised to reduce lumbar spine, lead hip, and lead knee ranges of motion and peak net joint moments, while affecting swing performance, compared to golfers' existing swings. Existing and MGS swings of 15 golfers with handicaps ranging from +2 to -20 were compared. During MGS downswing, golfers had 18.3% less lumbar spine transverse plane ROM, 40.7 and 41.8% less lead hip sagittal and frontal plane ROM, and 39.2% less lead knee sagittal plane ROM. MGS reduced lead hip extensor, abductor, and internal rotator moments by 17.8, 19.7 and 43%, while lead knee extensor, abductor, adductor and external rotator moments were reduced by 24.1, 26.6, 37 and 68.8% respectively. With MGS, club approach was 2° shallower, path 4° more in-to-out and speed 2 m/s slower. MGS reduced certain joint ROM and moments that are linked to injury risk factors, while influencing club impact factors with varying effect. Most golf injuries are from overuse, so reduced loads per cycle with MGS may extend the healthy life of joints, and permit golfers to play injury-free for more years.
A Targeted Approach to Evaluating the Golfing Athlete with Low Back Pain: A Resident's Case Report
Low back pain is one of the most common conditions occurring in the golfing population. Many approaches have been utilized throughout the years to address this condition including the concept of regional interdependence. The purpose of this case report is to describe the evaluation process and treatment approach of a golfer with low back pain using the principles of regional interdependence.
Reliability and Validity of the Polhemus Liberty System for Upper Body Segment and Joint Angular Kinematics of Elite Golfers
Golf swing analysis is common in both recreational and professional levels where players are searching for improvements in shot accuracy and distance. The use of motion analysis systems such as the portable Polhemus Liberty system is gaining interest by coaches and players; however, to date, no research has examined the usefulness of the Polhemus Liberty system for golf swing analysis. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the Polhemus Liberty system and validity compared to the VICON Nexus motion analysis system when assessing segment (pelvis and thorax) and joint (shoulder, elbow and wrist) angular kinematics during a golf swing at key events (address, top of backswing and impact). Fifteen elite amateur/professional golfers performed ten golf swing trials within specified bounds using their 5-iron club. Reliability was assessed using interclass coefficient, effect size and -test statistics by all participants completing two separate testing sessions on separate days following the same experimental protocol. Validity was assessed using effect size, Pearson correlation and -test statistics by comparing swings captured using both Polhemus Liberty and VICON Nexus concurrently. Results demonstrated no difference in ball outcome results using the Trackman launch monitor ( > 0.05) and that the Polhemus Liberty system was reliable across the two sessions for all segment (pelvis and thorax) and joint (lead shoulder (gleno-humeral joint), elbow and wrist) angular kinematics ( > 0.05). Validity analysis showed that the Polhemus Liberty system for the segments (pelvis and thorax) and joints (lead shoulder and wrist) were different compared to the VICON Nexus data at key events during the golf swing. Although validity could not be confirmed against VICON Nexus modeling, the Polhemus Liberty system may still be useful for golf swing analysis across training sessions. However, caution should be applied when comparing data from the system to published research data using different motion analysis methods.
Deficits in the Star Excursion Balance Test and Golf Performance in Elite Golfers with Chronic Low Back Pain
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether low-handicap elite golfers with chronic low back pain (CLBP) exhibit deficits in dynamic postural control and whether CLBP affects golfers in terms of their golf swing parameters. A total of fifteen Division 1 college golfers were recruited as participants. Of these, six of whom experienced CLBP, while the remaining participants were healthy. In this study, CLBP was defined as experiencing chronic pain symptoms for more than six months. The Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) was administered to examine dynamic posture control in both groups. The TrackMan Golf Launch Monitor Simulator was used to collect data on the performance parameters of the swing of the participants. The results for both feet in the medial, lateral, posterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions indicated that the CLBP group scored lower than the control group. However, the CLBP group scored higher for the right foot in the anterolateral direction. The parameters for the club speed and ball carry of the CLBP group were lower than those of the control group. Further, the CLBP group exhibited a more upright swing plane relative to the control group. Taken together, our findings suggest that SEBT may be feasible and highly accessible to assess golf swing performance of elite players with CLBP.
Return to Golf Following Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty
The object of this study was to examine return to golf and changes in golf performance after shoulder arthroplasty. Additionally, we set out to determine if there were differences in return to play and performance between total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA). We also examined pain during the golf swing to determine if there is a change in pain level after surgery.
Association of anthropometrics and physical performance measures to golf-specific variables in collegiate male golfers
As physical fitness has become more of a central component of competitive golf it is important to have an understanding of the relationship between anthropometric and physical performance on actual golf performance. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between measures of anthropometrics and physical performance to golf swing performance.
Golf as a Physical Activity to Potentially Reduce the Risk of Falls in Older Adults with Parkinson's Disease
Advanced age is associated with an increased risk for falls in aging adults. Older adults are also more likely to be diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (PD), with advanced age as the most significant risk factor. PD is a neurodegenerative disorder with four Cardinal motor symptoms: rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability, and tremor. Thus, people (person)-with-Parkinson's disease (PwP) have an even greater risk of falling than non-disorder age-matched peers. Exercise is an activity requiring physical effort, typically carried out to sustain or improve overall health and fitness, and it lowers the risk of falls in the general population. The sport of golf provides a low-impact all-around workout promoting a range of motion, activation of muscles in the upper and lower body, flexibility, and balance. Swinging a golf club offers a unique combination of high amplitude axial rotation, strengthening postural musculature, coordination, and stabilization, demonstrating the potential to impact PD symptoms positively. Golf may be a novel exercise treatment regimen for PD to use in conjunction with traditional medical therapy. We completed a literature review to determine the relationship between the game of golf, PD, and the risk of falls. We concluded that regularly playing golf can lower the risk for falls in community ambulating older adults with PD and demonstrates the potential to improve quality of life for PwP.
Test-retest reliability of segment kinetic energy measures in the golf swing
Analyses of segment kinetic energy (KE) can provide the most appropriate means of exploring sequential movements. As the reliability associated with its measurement has not been reported, the aim of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability of segment KE measures in the golf swing. On two occasions, seven male golfers hit five shots with three different clubs. Body segment inertia parameters were estimated for 17 rigid bodies and 3D kinematic data were collected during each swing. The magnitude and timing of peak total, linear and angular kinetic energies were then calculated for each rigid body and for four segment groups. Regardless of club type, KE was measured with high reliability for almost all rigid bodies and segment groups. However, significantly larger magnitudes of peak total (= 0.039) and linear (= 0.021) lower body KE were reported in test 2 than in test 1. The high reliability reported in this study provides support for the use of analyses of segment kinetic energy. However, practitioners should pay careful attention to the identification of anatomical landmarks which define the thigh, pelvis and thorax as this was the main cause of variability in repeated measures of segment kinetic energy.
Reliability of cable downswing load-velocity performance in golf swings
The cable-pulley downswing is a movement similar to the golf downswing, and therefore may offer a valuable golf specific rotational diagnostic and training tool. However, to be of value, measurements need to be stable across testing occasions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify the test-retest reliability of the cable downswing across a spectrum of load-velocities. Ten male participants (21.7 ± 3.0 years, 84.6 ± 9.8 kg, 1.80 ± 0.05 m) volunteered to participate over 3 testing sessions' separated by a minimum of 3 days. Participants performed maximal velocity cable downswings across eight loads (1.25-18.75 kg), which were incrementally increased by 2.5 kg. Vertical cable stack velocity was collected at 50 Hz via a GymAware linear position transducer. Downswing velocity across all eight loads was observed to be extremely reliable (change in mean = -5.1% to 2.9%, coefficient of variation = 1.5-6.4% and intra-class correlation = 0.70-0.98), with reliability increasing with increasing trials. In conclusion, the cable downswing is a reliable method of tracking rotational ability similar to the golf downswing. Practitioners should establish an upper load relative to the apparatus and participant. Future research should determine the utility and sensitivity of this measure.
The required number of trials for biomechanical analysis of a golf swing
The increasing interest in the biomechanical analysis of the golf swing warrants establishing the minimum number of trials required to obtain reliable data. Several such methods have been suggested previously for other movement tasks, and it has been shown that the number of required trials depends on the method used and on the task examined. This study aimed to compare three methods of reliability: a sequential average, intraclass correlations, and a modified version of the standard error of measurement (SEM). Kinematic and kinetic data of 10 recreational golfers performing 15 shots with both a six-iron and a driver was collected using a ten-camera motion capture system and force platforms. Range-of-motion, velocity, joint moments, and ground reaction forces were extracted and analysed using the three methods. The sequential average method yielded the highest number of required trials (12), while the intraclass correlations and SEM both resulted in lower numbers of required trials (4). Considering the variability between participants and strengths and limitations of the various methods, we conclude that 8 trials is sufficient for biomechanical analyses of a golf swing and recommend the SEM method for determining how many swings should be collected.
Acute and persistence of the effects of the SuperSpeed Golf™ weighted-club warm-up on golf driving performance and kinematics
High-level golfers use various warm-up strategies to enhance clubhead and ball speed, including weighted equipment. We investigated the acute effects of the SuperSpeed Golf™ weighted-club warm-up on clubhead, ball, and swing kinematics, and the persistence of any acute effects in subsequent sets. Twelve competitive golfers (handicap < 3.0) completed five sets of five swings using their own drivers under two randomised warm-up conditions (Control and SuperSpeed). We compared swing, peak segment and club angular velocity, and centre of mass (COM) parameters collected using a 3D motion capture system (500 Hz) between conditions. The temporal persistence of any meaningful (Cohen's ≥ ) and significant (≤ 0.05) effect detected in the first set was investigated in subsequent sets. SuperSpeed led to significant changes in clubhead speed (2.6 mph); downswing time; peak angular velocities of the torso, lead arm, and club; and two COM variables in the initial set. There was no significant change in ball speed, resulting in a negative change in smash factor acutely ( - 0.82, = 0.009). Nearly all changes observed were no longer meaningful or significant in subsequent sets. Overall, golfers can expect an increase in driving clubhead speed on the first tee using the SuperSpeed Golf™ vs Control warm-up, with trivial effects from the second tee onwards.
3D trunk orientation measured using inertial measurement units during anatomical and dynamic sports motions
Trunk motion is related to the performance and risk of injuries during dynamic sports motions. Optical motion capture is traditionally used to measure trunk motion during dynamic sports motions, but these systems are typically constrained to a laboratory environment. Inertial measurement units (IMUs) might provide a suitable alternative for measuring the trunk orientation during dynamic sports motions. The objective of the present study was to assess the accuracy of the three-dimensional trunk orientation measured using IMUs during dynamic sports motions and isolated anatomical trunk motions. The motions were recorded with two IMUs and an optical motion capture system (gold standard). Ten participants performed a total of 71 sports motions (19 golf swings, 15 one-handed ball throws, 19 tennis serves, and 18 baseball swings) and 125 anatomical trunk motions (42, 41, and 42 trials of lateral flexion, axial rotation, and flexion/extension, respectively). The root-mean-square differences between the IMU- and optical motion capture-based trunk angles were less than 5 degrees, and the similarity between the methods was on average across all trials "very good" to "excellent" (R ≥ 0.85; R ≥ 0.80). Across the dynamic sports motions, even higher measures of similarity were found (R ≥ 0.90; R ≥ 0.82). When aligned to the relevant segment, the current IMUs are a promising alternative to optical motion capture and previous presented IMU-based systems for the field-based measurement of the three-dimensional trunk orientation during dynamic sports motions and the anatomical trunk motions.
Inter-Disciplinary Conservative Management of Bilateral Non-United Lumbar Pars Defects in a Junior Elite Golfer
The prevalence of spondylolysis amongst adolescent athletes presenting with low back pain has been reported as high as 47-55%. Youth athletes participating in sports involving movements combining compression, extension and rotation appear most susceptible. As such, young golfers are a high-risk group, particularly given the high shear and compressive forces associated with the golf swing action. This is compounded by a culture which encourages very high practice volumes, typically poorly monitored. Although non-operative interventions are deemed the gold-standard management for this condition, surgery is indicated for more severe presentations and cases of 'failed' conservative management. The case presented herein outlines an inter-disciplinary, non-operative management of a 17-year old elite golfer with a moderate to severe presentation. A 4-stage model of reconditioning is outlined, which may be of use to practitioners given the paucity of rehabilitation guidelines for this condition. The report highlights the benefits of a graded program of exercise-based rehabilitation over the typically prescribed "12 weeks rest" prior to a return to the provocative activity. It also supports existing evidence that passive therapeutic approaches should only be used as an adjunct to exercise, if at all in the management of spondylolysis. Finally, and crucially, it also underlines that to deem non-surgical rehabilitation 'unsuccessful' or 'failed', clinicians should ensure that (long-term) exercise was included in the conservative approach.
Small changes in ball position at address cause a chain effect in golf swing
The purpose of this study was to investigate how the ball position along the mediolateral (M-L) direction of a golfer causes a chain effect in the ground reaction force, body segment and joint angles, and whole-body centre of mass during the golf swing. Twenty professional golfers were asked to complete five straight shots for each 5 different ball positions along M-L: 4.27 cm (ball diameter), 2.14 cm (ball radius), 0 cm (reference position at preferred ball position), - 2.14 cm, and - 4.27 cm, while their ground reaction force and body segment motions were captured. The dependant variables were calculated at 14 swing events from address to impact, and the differences between the ball positions were evaluated using Statistical Parametric Mapping. The left-sided ball positions at address showed a greater weight distribution on the left foot with a more open shoulder angle compared to the reference ball position, whereas the trend was reversed for the right-sided ball positions. These trends disappeared during the backswing and reappeared during the downswing. The whole-body centre of mass was also located towards the target for the left-sided ball positions throughout the golf swing compared to the reference ball position, whereas the trend was reversed for the right-sided ball positions. We have concluded that initial ball position at address can cause a series of chain effects throughout the golf swing.
The effects of strength and conditioning interventions on golf performance: A systematic review
There is a growing body of literature on strength and conditioning (S&C) interventions for golfers of various skill levels. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of S&C interventions on measures of golf performance (clubhead speed, ball speed, distance, etc.). Three databases (PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science) were searched and twenty-five studies identified that evaluated the effects of a S&C intervention on at least one golf performance measure compared to a control or comparison group. Most studies used combinations of strength training, plyometrics, stretching or core exercise, with many finding a benefit. Though it varied across studies and outcomes, average increases in clubhead speed, ball speed and distance measures were 4-6.4% when significant findings were synthesized. Four studies also found significant changes to golf swing kinematics, while three others found positive effects on measures of accuracy or consistency. Future research should compare different S&C interventions, explore the role of training status, skill level and intervention duration on the effects of S&C interventions, and report individual responses in addition to group data. Further, research should continue to evaluate effects on swing kinematics, accuracy and direct golf performance measures (e.g., handicap index).
Motion Capture Data Analysis in the Instantaneous Frequency-Domain Using Hilbert-Huang Transform
Motion capture data are widely used in different research fields such as medical, entertainment, and industry. However, most motion researches using motion capture data are carried out in the time-domain. To understand human motion complexities, it is necessary to analyze motion data in the frequency-domain. In this paper, to analyze human motions, we present a framework to transform motions into the instantaneous frequency-domain using the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT). The empirical mode decomposition (EMD) that is a part of HHT decomposes nonstationary and nonlinear signals captured from the real-world experiments into pseudo monochromatic signals, so-called intrinsic mode function (IMF). Our research reveals that the multivariate EMD can decompose complicated human motions into a finite number of nonlinear modes (IMFs) corresponding to distinct motion primitives. Analyzing these decomposed motions in Hilbert spectrum, motion characteristics can be extracted and visualized in instantaneous frequency-domain. For example, we apply our framework to (1) a jump motion, (2) a foot-injured gait, and (3) a golf swing motion.
Chemical Meningitis after a Golf Swing-induced Dermoid Cyst Rupture
A 51-year-old man developed a sudden headache during golf practice, followed by a high fever. He was admitted with suspected neutrophilic meningitis and was diagnosed with chemical meningitis caused by a dermoid cyst rupture based on the characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, which showed multiple lipid droplets in his ventricle and cistern. His repetitive golf-swing motion was suggested to be the cause of his dermoid cyst rupture. On MRI, the lipid droplets appeared to have migrated by gravity because of the body position. Therefore, the body position should be considered to prevent obstructive hydrocephalus by lipid droplets after a dermoid cyst rupture.
The influence of tracking marker locations on three-dimensional wrist kinematics
To determine the influence of tracking marker locations on wrist kinematics during free movements and the golf swing, with the intention of recommending a solution that generates meaningful three-dimensional wrist kinematics.
Acute Effects of Self-Selected Music Intervention on Golf Performance and Anxiety Level in Collegiate Golfers: A Crossover Study
Music has been reported as a positive intervention for improving psychophysiological conditions and exercise performance. However, the effects of music intervention on golf performance in association with psychophysiological responses have not been well examined in the literature. The purpose of the study was to investigate the acute effects of self-selected music intervention on golf swing and putting performance, heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV), and anxiety. Twenty collegiate golfers voluntarily participated in this study (age = 20.2 ± 1.4 years, height = 171.7 ± 8.0 cm, body weight = 69.5 ± 14.6 kg, golf experience = 7.5 ± 2.1 years). A cross-over and within-subject design was used in this study. Participants performed a non-music trial (T1), pre-exercise music trial (T2), and simultaneous music trial (T3) in a randomized order with 48-72 h apart. The participants were attached to a HR monitor to record the HR and HRV during the measurement. The golf swing and putting performance was assessed by using the Golfzon golf simulator system. The state-trait anxiety inventory-state questionnaire (STAI-S) was used to evaluate anxiety state. All measurements were taken during baseline (phase one) and after resting or music intervention (phase two). Repeated measurement of analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Cohen's effect size (ES) were used for statistical analyses. The results show no significant differences in golf swing and putting performance ( > 0.05). However, significant decrease in STAI-S score was found in T2 ( = 0.047, ES = 0.32). A significant increase in the standard deviation of normal R-R interval (SDNN), low-frequency power spectrum (LF), standard deviation of along the line-of-identity (SD2) in T2 and T3 were observed ( < 0.05). In conclusion, a single pre-exercise or simultaneous self-selected music intervention contributes minor effects to golf performance in collegiate golfers. The positive benefits of self-selected music intervention on the psychological condition and cardia-related modulation while practicing golf is warranted.
Golf Swing Segmentation from a Single IMU Using Machine Learning
Golf swing segmentation with inertial measurement units (IMUs) is an essential process for swing analysis using wearables. However, no attempt has been made to apply machine learning models to estimate and divide golf swing phases. In this study, we proposed and verified two methods using machine learning models to segment the full golf swing into five major phases, including before and after the swing, from every single IMU attached to a body part. Proposed bidirectional long short-term memory-based and convolutional neural network-based methods rely on characteristics that automatically learn time-series features, including sequential body motion during a golf swing. Nine professional and eleven skilled male golfers participated in the experiment to collect swing data for training and verifying the methods. We verified the proposed methods using leave-one-out cross-validation. The results revealed average segmentation errors of 5-92 ms from each IMU attached to the head, wrist, and waist, accurate compared to the heuristic method in this study. In addition, both proposed methods could segment all the swing phases using only the acceleration data, bringing advantage in terms of power consumption. This implies that swing-segmentation methods using machine learning could be applied to various motion-analysis environments by dividing motion phases with less restriction on IMU placement.
Revisiting the Nesbit and McGinnis optimization model of the golf swing hub path
This article details the development of adopting the Nesbit and McGinnis model of the golf swing as a starting point for studying golf performance optimization. The model was selected as it presents an opportunity to examine how non-naïve participants can learn and improve their swing mechanics, which could prove valuable in studying human learning in sports, rehabilitation, and re-education.
Could knee joint mechanics during the golf swing be contributing to chronic knee injuries in professional golfers?
Full three-dimensional movements and external moments in golfers' knees and the possible involvement in injuries have not been evaluated using motion capture at high sample frequencies. This study measured joint angles and external moments around the three anatomical axes in both knees of 10 professional golfers performing golf drives whilst standing on two force plates in a motion capture laboratory. Significant differences were found in the knee joint moments between the lead and trail limbs for the peak values and throughout all stages during the swing phase. A significantly higher net abduction moment impulse was seen in the trail limb compared with the lead limb (-0.518 vs. -0.135 Nms.kg), indicating greater loading over the whole swing, which could contribute to knee lateral compartment or anterior cruciate ligament injuries. A significant correlation (= -0.85) between clubhead speed at ball contact and maximum joint moment was found, with the largest correlations being found for joint moments at the top of the backswing event and at the end of the follow-through. Therefore, although knee moments can contribute to high clubhead speeds, the large moments and impulses suggest that they may also contribute to chronic knee injuries or exacerbate existing conditions.
Three Dimensional Upper Limb Joint Kinetics of a Golf Swing with Measured Internal Grip Force
The biomechanics of a golf swing have been of interest to golfers, instructors, and biomechanists. In addition to the complexity of the three-dimensional (3D) dynamics of multi-segments of body, the closed-chain body posture as a result of both hands holding a club together makes it difficult to fully analyze the 3D kinetics of a golf swing. To identify the hand-grip joint force and torque applied by each hand, we directly measured the 3D internal grip force of nine registered professional golfers using an instrumented grip. A six-axis force-torque sensor was connected to a custom-made axially separated grip, which was then connected to a driver shaft using a manufactured screw thread. Subjects participated in two sessions of data collection featuring five driver swings with both a regular and customized sensor-embedded grip, respectively. Internal grip force measurement and upper limb kinematics were used to calculate the joint force and torque of the nine-linkage closed-chain of the upper limb and club using 3D inverse dynamics. Direct measurement of internal grip forces revealed a threefold greater right-hand torque application compared to the left hand, and counterforce by both hands was also found. The joint force and torque of the left arm tended to precede that of the right arm, the majority of which had peaks around the impact and showed a larger magnitude than that of the left arm. Due to the practical challenge of measuring internal force, heuristic estimation methods based on club kinematics showed fair approximation. Our results suggest that measuring the internal forces of the closed-chain posture could identify redundant joint kinetics and further propose a heuristic approximation.
The Relationship Between the Golf-Specific Movement Screen and Golf Performance
Golf requires effective movement patterns to produce an effective swing and performance.
Low back pain and golf: A review of biomechanical risk factors
Golf is an international sport played by a variety of age groups and fitness levels, and although golf has a low to moderate aerobic intensity level, injuries are common among professional and amateur golfers. High amounts of force experienced during the golf swing can lead to injury when golfers lack appropriate strength or technique with the lower back most commonly injured. Research has indicated that trunk muscle activation, hip strength and mobility, and pelvis and trunk rotation are associated with low back pain (LBP). Based on anecdotal evidence, golf practitioners specifically address issues in weight shift, lumbar positioning, and pelvis sequencing for golfers with LBP. This review aims to elucidate the effects of proper and improper golf swing technique on LBP and to help golf practitioners understand how to approach the alleviation of LBP in their clientele.
Dynamic task observation: A gaze-mediated complement to traditional action observation treatment?
Action observation elicits changes in primary motor cortex known as motor resonance, a phenomenon thought to underpin several functions, including our ability to understand and imitate others' actions. Motor resonance is modulated not only by the observer's motor expertise, but also their gaze behaviour. The aim of the present study was to investigate motor resonance and eye movements during observation of a dynamic goal-directed action, relative to an everyday one - a reach-grasp-lift (RGL) action, commonly used in action-observation-based neurorehabilitation protocols. Skilled and novice golfers watched videos of a golf swing and an RGL action as we recorded MEPs from three forearm muscles; gaze behaviour was concurrently monitored. Corticospinal excitability increased during golf swing observation, but it was not modulated by expertise, relative to baseline; no such changes were observed for the RGL task. MEP amplitudes were related to participants' gaze behaviour: in the RGL condition, target viewing was associated with lower MEP amplitudes; in the golf condition, MEP amplitudes were positively correlated with time spent looking at the effector or neighbouring regions. Viewing of a dynamic action such as the golf swing may enhance action observation treatment, especially when concurrent physical practice is not possible.
Effects of pelvis-shoulders torsional separation style on kinematic sequence in golf driving
The golfer's body (trunk/arms/club) can be modeled as an inclined axle-chain system and the rotations of its parts observed on the functional swing plane (FSP) can represent the actual angular motions closely. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pelvis-shoulders torsional separation style on the kinematic sequences employed by the axle-chain system in golf driving. Seventy-four male skilled golfers (handicap ≤ 3) were assigned to five groups based on their shoulder girdle motion and X-factor stretch characteristics: Late Shoulder Acceleration, Large Downswing Stretch, Large Backswing Stretch, Medium Total Stretch, and Small Total Stretch. Swing trials were captured by an optical system and the hip-line, thorax, shoulder-line, upper-lever, club, and wrist angular positions/velocities were calculated on the FSP. Kinematic sequences were established based on the timings of the peak angular velocities (backswing and downswing sequences) and the backswing-to-downswing transition time points (transition sequence). The backswing and transition sequences were somewhat consistent across the groups, showing full or partial proximal-to-distal sequences with minor variations. The downswing sequence was inconsistent across the groups and the angular velocity peaks of the body segments were not significantly separated. Various swing characteristics associated with the separation styles influenced the motion sequences.
Coeliac trunk dissection causing splenic infarction: a comprehensive review
We describe the case of a 49-year-old man who presented with a 6-day history of epigastric abdominal pain radiating to his right shoulder which started suddenly after swinging a golf club. A CT angiography of the abdomen was performed which showed dissection of the coeliac trunk extending into the splenic artery and splenic infarct. Anticoagulation was initially started but discontinued due to a small retroperitoneal haemorrhage. The patient remained stable and was discharged on aspirin 325 mg for 1 month followed by aspirin 81 mg. We present this case as well as a review of previously reported cases of splenic infarct due to spontaneous coeliac trunk dissection with the treatments employed as well as the outcomes.
Motor control of practice and actual strokes by professional and amateur golfers differ but feature a distance-dependent control strategy
We explored how practice and actual putting strokes differed between professionals and high-level golf amateurs, and how practice strokes reflected subtle differences in putting distances. We analysed swing amplitude, impact velocity, and acceleration profile of the club-head. The acceleration profiles showed that the motor control pattern of the practice stroke differed from that of the actual stroke. To clarify the effects of different putting distances on the practice stroke and to analyse how much the actual stroke could be explained by the practice stroke, we conducted individual regression analyses. The practice strokes of all participants could be divided into three strategies and five types by the coefficient of determination and the slope. This implies that the purpose of the practice stroke varied among golfers. Most golfers used the individual velocity criteria in their practice strokes, which resulted in different putting distances based on their criteria. Unexpectedly, we found no significant difference in skill level between professionals and high-level amateurs. The results of this study imply that the practice stroke does not duplicate the actual stroke, even for professional golfers with excellent skills. However, most high-level golfers adopted distance-dependent control strategies for slightly different putting distances.
The effect of alterations in foot centre of pressure on lower body kinematics during the five-iron golf swing
The research aimed to evaluate the effects of an intervention aimed at altering pressure towards the medial aspect of the foot relating to stability mechanisms associated with the golf swing. We hypothesised that by altering the position of the foot pressure, the lower body stabilisation would improve which in turn would enhance weight distribution and underpinning lower body joint kinematics. Eight professional golf association (PGA) golf coaches performed five golf swings, recorded using a nine-camera motion analysis system synchronised with two force platforms. Following verbal intervention, they performed further five swings. One participant returned following a one-year intervention programme and performed five additional golf swings to provide a longitudinal case study analysis. Golf performance was unchanged evidenced by the velocity and angle of the club at ball impact (BI), although the one-year intervention significantly changed the percentage of weight experienced at each foot in the final 9% of downswing, which provided an even weight distribution at BI. This is a highly relevant finding as it indicates that the foot centre of pressure was central to the base of support and in-line with the centre of mass (CoM), indicating significantly increased stability when the CoM is near maximal acceleration.
Visual dependency and postural control on swing performance in golf players
Individuals have to reweight the respective contribution of the different sources of sensorial information for regulating posture and balance, especially during fine task execution. Given the evidences indicating strategy during swing performance as associated with prioritization of task-relevant visuospatial information for skill execution, the aim of the present work is to assess differences in visual dependency (VD) and postural control in a population of expert (EXP) and non-expert (NEXP) golfers when compared with healthy subjects (HC) and to discover possible relationships between these outcomes and swing performance. Thus, 15 golfers (EXP = 7; NEXP = 8) and 32 matched HC underwent otoneurological testing including video Head Impulse Test, posturography and Rod and Disk Test (RDT). Golf players also underwent a swing session procedure, which performance was measured by means of the Flightscope X2 Doppler-radar launch monitor system. EXP subjects demonstrated significant ( < 0.05) lower values in i) counter-clockwise (CCW) and clockwise (CW) dynamic conditions when compared with both NEXP and HC subjects RDT outcome measures and ii) surface and length posturography values as compared with HC subjects. When treating golf players outcomes as 'a continuum', CCW and CW scores were found to positively correlate with both lateral distance and horizontal launch angle and to negatively correlate with spin rpm. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the high-level of visual-independency demonstrated by EXP subjects may be functionally related in expert golfers to an effective motor strategy preferentially not referring to an inappropriate reliance on visual input.
A biomechanical approach to investigate swing characteristics in elite golfers
The current study aims to compare the variability of positional control of the club in the starting period of downswing and the orientation of the clubface during impact in elite and intermediate golfers.
Kinematic determinants of performance parameters during golf swing
In golf, the trunk and pelvis kinematic variables are often related to measures of performance due to the highly complex and multi-joint movements involved in swings. However, it is unclear how specific body segments or joints contributed to the golf performance parameters. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the key joints, including those of the upper and lower trunk, that are associated with golf performance parameters, such as X-Factor and pelvis motion. A motion capture system was used to obtain three-dimensional kinematics of golf swings performed by 10 low handicap male golfers. Based on regression analysis, right knee adduction, right shoulder external rotation and left elbow extension in ball address to top of the backswing and left knee adduction and lower trunk right bending with left rotation in top of the backswing to end of follow-through were presented as predictor variables for the X-Factor. For pelvis movement, a greater number of joint angles were associated with pelvis posterior tilt during backswing and pelvis motion to target with right rotation during downswing/follow-through. This study provides fundamental details of the movement mechanisms of major joints, as well as their relationships with performance parameters. Such understanding can be combined with training to improve the golfing skill and prevent possible injuries.
Effects of the golfer-ground interaction on clubhead speed in skilled male golfers
The purposes of this study were to characterise the golfer-ground interactions during the swing and to identify meaningful associations between the golfer-ground interaction force/moment parameters and the maximum clubhead speed in 63 highly skilled male golfers (handicap ≤ 3). Golfers performed shots in 3 club conditions (driver, 5-iron and pitching wedge) which were captured by an optical motion capture system and 2 force plates. In addition to the ground reaction forces (GRFs), 3 different golfer-ground interaction moments (GRF moments, pivoting moments and foot contact moments) were computed. The GRF moment about the forward/backward (F/B) axis and the pivoting moment about the vertical axis were identified as the primary moments. Significant (p < 0.05) correlations of peak force parameters (all components in the lead foot and F/B component in the trail foot) and peak moment parameters (lead-foot GRF moment and trail-foot pivoting moment) to clubhead speed were found. The lead-foot was responsible for generating the GRF moment, while the trail foot contributed to the pivoting moment more. The instant the lead arm becomes parallel to the ground was identified as the point of maximum angular effort, and the loading onto the lead-foot near this point was critical in generating both peak moments.
The evaluation of foot pressure and postural structure of national golfers
The aim of this study was to perform the static and dynamic biomechanical assessment of postural structure and analyze variations of foot pressure in elite golfers.
Biomechanics of the golf swing using OpenSim
A study was conducted to investigate the underlying mechanisms involved in the dynamics of body motions during the golf swing. A series of model simulation programs were developed in OpenSim to control the characteristics of the biomechanical model of the body. The resultant model parameters were put in an Excel file, which allowed these parameters to be modified. OpenSim model simulation run was paused at various points of the golf swing and screenshots were taken. MATLAB was used to find the positional value of the center of clubface for each screenshot and the Euclidean distances of the clubhead position between poses. A series of simulation trials were then conducted using various time increments between the poses in order to calculate the clubhead velocities. Three of these trials were selected to illustrate the swing patterns of players of varying skill levels ranging from basic beginner to highly-skilled. These simulations using OpenSim can serve as a platform for understanding the dynamics of body motions in sports and biomedicine.
Editorial Commentary: When Your Golf Game Is Handicapped by Your Hip
Golf is a common recreational and competitive sport that requires full hip rotation to allow for a smooth and effective swing. Therefore hip impingement and hip osteoarthritis, by limiting rotation, could cause pain in golfers and even encourage them to discontinue the sport. In my opinion, the lead hip in golfers is likely what generally drives the symptoms in the hip, back, or knee. After surgical correction, golfers are able to get back to golf and many experience improved performance.
Lumbar Spine Injuries: Primary Prevention in Amateur and Professional Golf Players
In the sport of golf, there is no standard teaching method or swing technique even though golf is known for overuse injuries. This prospective study was to analyze classic swing kinematics in comparison with the Free-Release method and to define a physiological golf swing. Two hundred eighty-three players, age 50-59 years, were included in the study. For both swing techniques, examination addressed swing visualization, center of pressure (COP), center of mass (COM), as well as pelvic movement in relationship to different standing widths. The position of the spine was evaluated in the frontal and lateral planes. Using the classic technique, no golfer was able to describe his swing parameters, which would be necessary for visualization and to tolerate physiological range of movement, whereas players using the Free-Release method were able to provide such a description. COP and COM showed pathological swing mechanics for the classic technique, whereas for the Free-Release method mechanics were physiological. We conclude that to prevent lumbar spine injury, the classic swinging technique, which is characterized by lateral shear forces, static and dynamic pelvic side bending while rotating with high force against the spine, and an unbalanced COM and COP, should be substituted by the Free-Release technique as a new physiological guideline.
Extracting proficiency differences and individual characteristics in golfers' swing using single-video markerless motion analysis
In this study, we analyzed golfers' swing movement to extract differences in proficiency and individual characteristics using two-dimensional video data from a single camera. We conducted an experiment with 27 golfers who had a wide range of skill levels, using a 7-iron; we acquired video data with a camera on the sagittal plane. For data extraction, we used pose estimation (using HRNet) and object detection (using DeepLabCut) methods to extract human-joint and club-head data. We examined the relationship between proficiency and individual characteristics vis-à-vis forward tilt angle and club trajectory. The results showed that the stability and reproducibility of the forward tilt angle are characteristics of proficiency. Highly skilled golfers showed low variability and high reproducibility between trials in forward tilt angle. However, we found that club trajectory may not be a characteristic of proficiency but rather an individual characteristic. Club trajectory was divided roughly into clockwise rotation and counterclockwise rotation. Thus, the analysis based on video data from a single markerless camera enabled the extraction of the differences in proficiency and individual characteristics of golf swing. This suggests the usefulness of our system for simply evaluating golf swings and applying it to motor learning and coaching situations.
Effect of slope change on kinematics of amateur golfers' full swing
Golf courses are designed with uneven terrain. These factors are especially important when facing (slope), players need to straighten the posture of each part of the body in order to complete the swing on an inclined surface such as flat ground. Amateur players may be more likely to change the movement patterns of their shots due to uneven terrain. Therefore, it may be necessary to clarify the shot characteristics of amateur players and provide reference materials for technical improvement.
The swing performance Index: Developing a single-score index of golf swing rotational biomechanics quantified with 3D kinematics
Golf swing generates power through coordinated rotations of the pelvis and upper torso, which are highly consistent among professionals. Currently, golf performance is graded on handicap, length-of-shot, and clubhead-speed-at-impact. No performance indices are grading the technique of pelvic and torso rotations. As an initial step toward developing a performance index, we collected kinematic metrics of swing rotational biomechanics and hypothesized that a set of these metrics could differentiate between amateur and pro players. The aim of this study was to develop a single-score index of rotational biomechanics based on metrics that are consistent among pros and could be derived in the future using inertial measurement units (IMU).
Physiotherapeutic effects of an innovative golf swing-assist device on discomfort and mobility in amateur golfers with low back pain: A randomized controlled trial
Although the biomechanical features of the golf swing are extremely determined, multiple joint movements with limited pelvic and thoracic rotation movement can cause injury to the golfer and are linked with low back pain (LBP). We have developed the Pulley Master machine (PM), which is designed to offer active movement evaluation and monitoring as well as repetitive and task-specific training.
The effect of listening to preferred music after a stressful task on performance and psychophysiological responses in collegiate golfers
This study explores whether listening to preferred music after a stressful situation affects putting and swinging performance, heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV), and anxiety among amateur golfers.
Research on Intelligent Sports Training System for Golf Based on Body Sense Recognition
In recent years, significant advances in the development of computer vision technology have produced many platforms and systems that combine computer technology and sports-assisted training, including intelligent systems that are integrated with golf training and instruction. However, the existing intelligent systems for golf-assisted teaching usually use three-dimensional depth information, which will significantly increase the cost of intelligent systems. In this paper, the extraction of golf club slope is carried out on the basis of golf sport video capture using a common monocular camera in order to match the club slope information with the professional coach swing video information. At the same time, in order to facilitate the interframe matching, the joint point information is complemented using the projection approximation point algorithm, and the segmentation of the swing video is performed using the complemented human hand joints and the fixed characteristics of the golf swing. Then, in order to solve the problem that human joints will have the same joint angle under different movements, the human limb joint angles are defined and then the swing movements in the user video frames are evaluated.
Return to Play and Performance in Golfers After Total Knee Arthroplasty: Does Component Type Matter?
Golf is a popular sport among patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The golf swing requires significant knee rotation, which may lead to changes in golfing ability postoperatively. The type of implant used may alter the swing mechanics or place different stresses on the knee. The purpose of this study was to evaluate golf performance and subjective stability after TKA and compare outcomes between cruciate-retaining (CR) and posterior-stabilized (PS) implants.
The effects of post activation potentiation warm-up and pre-shot routine programs on driving performance in amateur golfers
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of three different programs, i.e. active dynamic warm-up program plus functional resistance warm-up using Theraband plus pre-shot routine program (AFPR); pre-shot routine program (PR); and active dynamic warm-up program plus functional resistance warm-up using Theraband (AF) on driver club head speed, driving distance, and driving accuracy in the amateur golfers. Fifteen amateur golfers with an average age of 19.67 ± 0.89 years and 4.87 ± 1.77 points of average handicap were assigned to participate in either AFPR, PR or AF program. All participants in the three programs practiced three sessions on non-consecutive days per week during the intervention phase. Each participant's performance was assessed before and after six weeks of the program through hitting ten maximal drives with the ball flight and swing analyzed using the P3ProSwing Golf Simulator and recorded for the driver club head speed, driving distance, and driving accuracy. Multivariate analysis of variance showed no statistically significant differences (P < .05) of the performances of the golfers participated in the 3 programs (club head speed: F = 1.02, P = 0.33; accuracy: F = 0.32, P = 0.72; distance: F = 0.18, P = 0.83). Furthermore, a paired t-tests also showed no statistically significant (P < .05) improvement occurred in the 3 programs after the six-week training. Although the effect of the 3 programs did not show statistically significant increase in the performance of the amateur golfers, however, the three parameters of the performance, i.e. the driver club head speed, the driving distance and the driving accuracy showed certain improvements. The 3 training programs may have benefit to the amateur golfers with certain increases of their performance.
Renal artery dissection as an overuse Injury
The diagnosis of renal infarction is often convoluted due to its non-specific presentation. It can mimic disease processes as disparate as pyelonephritis, diverticulitis, or nephrolithiasis. This case is further complicated by the presence of a pelvic kidney with triplicate arterial input. It is difficult to estimate the incidence of pelvic kidneys as the numerous sources vary wildly in their estimations; however, the paucity information, in and of itself, speaks to the rarity of the condition. In this case, a 58-year-old male presents to the emergency department after experiencing sharp, sudden, and severe groin pain while swinging a golf club. The patient was noted to have an abnormally high systolic blood pressure in the 170s and hematuria, but all other initial labs and assessments were unremarkable. An initial computed tomography scan with intravenous contrast of the abdomen and pelvis showed partial necrosis of a pelvic kidney. Follow-up computed tomography angiography revealed that a dissection in one of the arteries supplying the kidney created an infarction and resultant necrosis. Vessel size, location and time between injury and diagnosis made endovascular intervention impractical. The patient was started on aspirin and Plavix, observed for 3 days and sent home.
Effect of concurrent training on trainability performance factors in youth elite golf players
Due to the early specialization of golf players, examining the within session sequence of training should be considered to enhance performance and prevent injury risk. The present study analyzed the effects of an 18-week concurrent training developed before or after a specific golf session in adolescence elite golfers on several performance factors.
Biomechanical analysis of the golf swing: methodological effect of angular velocity component on the identification of the kinematic sequence
The golf swing is a complex whole-body motion for which a proximal-to-distal transfer of the segmental angular velocities from the pelvis to the club is believed to be optimal for maximizing the club head linear velocity. However, previous experimental results about such timing (or kinematic sequence) are contradictory. Nevertheless, methods that were used in these studies differed significantly, in particular, those regarding the component of the angular velocity vector selected for the identification of the kinematic sequence. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of angular velocity vector component selection on the identified kinematic sequence.