CANNABIDIOL

SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS

Myrcene and terpene regulation of TRPV1
Jansen C, Shimoda LMN, Kawakami JK, Ang L, Bacani AJ, Baker JD, Badowski C, Speck M, Stokes AJ, Small-Howard AL and Turner H
Nociceptive Transient Receptor Potential channels such as TRPV1 are targets for treating pain. Both antagonism and agonism of TRP channels can promote analgesia, through inactivation and chronic desensitization. Since plant-derived mixtures of cannabinoids and the component myrcene have been suggested as pain therapeutics, we screened terpenes found in for activity at TRPV1. We used inducible expression of TRPV1 to examine TRPV1-dependency of terpene-induced calcium flux responses. Terpenes contribute differentially to calcium fluxes via TRPV1 induced by -mimetic cannabinoid/terpenoid mixtures. Myrcene dominates the TRPV1-mediated calcium responses seen with terpenoid mixtures. Myrcene-induced calcium influx is inhibited by the TRPV1 inhibitor capsazepine and Myrcene elicits TRPV1 currents in the whole-cell patch-clamp configuration. TRPV1 currents are highly sensitive to internal calcium. When Myrcene currents are evoked, they are distinct from capsaicin responses on the basis of I and their lack of shift to a pore-dilated state. Myrcene pre-application and residency at TRPV1 appears to negatively impact subsequent responses to TRPV1 ligands such as Cannabidiol, indicating allosteric modulation and possible competition by Myrcene. Molecular docking studies suggest a non-covalent interaction site for Myrcene in TRPV1 and identifies key residues that form partially overlapping Myrcene and Cannabidiol binding sites. We identify several non- plant-derived sources of Myrcene and other compounds targeting nociceptive TRPs using a data mining approach focused on analgesics suggested by non-Western Traditional Medical Systems. These data establish TRPV1 as a target of Myrcene and suggest the therapeutic potential of analgesic formulations containing Myrcene.
Cannabinoid interactions with ion channels and receptors
Watkins AR
Cannabidiol (CBD), the non-psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa, acts on a diverse selection of membrane proteins with promising therapeutic potential in epilepsy and chronic pain. One such protein is the voltage-gated sodium channel (Na). CBD shows a lack of specificity for sodium channels; however, the method of interaction is still unknown. In this review, we will outline the studies that report reproducible results of CBD and other cannabinoids changing membrane channel function, with particular interest on Na. Na are implicated in fatal forms of epilepsy and are also associated with chronic pain. This makes Na potential targets for CBD interaction since it has been reported to reduce pain and seizures. One potential method of interaction that is of interest in this review is whether CBD affects channel function by altering lipid bilayer properties, independent of any possible direct interaction with membrane channels. CBD's ability to interact with its targets is a novel and important discovery. This discovery will not only prompt further research towards CBD's characterization, but also promotes the application of cannabinoids as potentially therapeutic compounds for diseases like epilepsy and pain.
The effectiveness of self-directed medical cannabis treatment for pain
Li X, Vigil JM, Stith SS, Brockelman F, Keeling K and Hall B
The prior medical literature offers little guidance as to how pain relief and side effect manifestation may vary across commonly used and commercially available cannabis product types. We used the largest dataset in the United States of real-time responses to and side effect reporting from patient-directed cannabis consumption sessions for the treatment of pain under naturalistic conditions in order to identify how cannabis affects momentary pain intensity levels and which product characteristics are the best predictors of therapeutic pain relief. Between 06/06/2016 and 10/24/2018, 2987 people used the ReleafApp to record 20,513 cannabis administration measuring cannabis' effects on momentary pain intensity levels across five pain categories: musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, nerve, headache-related, or non-specified pain. The average pain reduction was -3.10 points on a 0-10 visual analogue scale (SD = 2.16, d = 1.55, p < .001). Whole Cannabis flower was associated with greater pain relief than were other types of products, and higher tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) levels were the strongest predictors of analgesia and side effects prevalence across the five pain categories. In contrast, cannabidiol (CBD) levels generally were not associated with pain relief except for a negative association between CBD and relief from gastrointestinal and non-specified pain. These findings suggest benefits from patient-directed, cannabis therapy as a mid-level analgesic treatment; however, effectiveness and side effect manifestation vary with the characteristics of the product used.
A systematic review of cannabidiol dosing in clinical populations
Millar SA, Stone NL, Bellman ZD, Yates AS, England TJ and O'Sullivan SE
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a cannabis-derived medicinal product with potential application in a wide-variety of contexts; however, its effective dose in different disease states remains unclear. This review aimed to investigate what doses have been applied in clinical populations, in order to understand the active range of CBD in a variety of medical contexts.
Cannabidiol (CBD) use in psychiatric disorders: A systematic review
Bonaccorso S, Ricciardi A, Zangani C, Chiappini S and Schifano F
Cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are the most represented phytocannabinoids in Cannabis sativa plants. However, CBD may present with a different activity compared with the psychotomimetic THC. Most typically, CBD is reported to be used in some medical conditions, including chronic pain. Conversely, the main aim of this systematic review is to assess and summarise the available body of evidence relating to both efficacy and safety of CBD as a treatment for psychiatric disorders, alone and/or in combination with other treatments. Eligible studies included randomized controlled trials (RCT) assessing the effect of CBD in a range of psychopathological conditions, such as substance use; psychosis, anxiety, mood disturbances, and other psychiatric (e.g., cognitive impairment; sleep; personality; eating; obsessive-compulsive; post-traumatic stress/PTSD; dissociative; and somatic) disorders. For data gathering purposes, the PRISMA guidelines were followed. The initial search strategy identified some n = 1301 papers; n = 190 studies were included after the abstract's screening and n = 27 articles met the inclusion criteria. There is currently limited evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of CBD for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. However, available trials reported potential therapeutic effects for specific psychopathological conditions, such as substance use disorders, chronic psychosis, and anxiety. Further large-scale RCTs are required to better evaluate the efficacy of CBD in both acute and chronic illnesses, special categories, as well as to exclude any possible abuse liability.
Clinicians' Guide to Cannabidiol and Hemp Oils
VanDolah HJ, Bauer BA and Mauck KF
Cannabidiol (CBD) oils are low tetrahydrocannabinol products derived from Cannabis sativa that have become very popular over the past few years. Patients report relief for a variety of conditions, particularly pain, without the intoxicating adverse effects of medical marijuana. In June 2018, the first CBD-based drug, Epidiolex, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of rare, severe epilepsy, further putting the spotlight on CBD and hemp oils. There is a growing body of preclinical and clinical evidence to support use of CBD oils for many conditions, suggesting its potential role as another option for treating challenging chronic pain or opioid addiction. Care must be taken when directing patients toward CBD products because there is little regulation, and studies have found inaccurate labeling of CBD and tetrahydrocannabinol quantities. This article provides an overview of the scientific work on cannabinoids, CBD, and hemp oil and the distinction between marijuana, hemp, and the different components of CBD and hemp oil products. We summarize the current legal status of CBD and hemp oils in the United States and provide a guide to identifying higher-quality products so that clinicians can advise their patients on the safest and most evidence-based formulations. This review is based on a PubMed search using the terms CBD, cannabidiol, hemp oil, and medical marijuana. Articles were screened for relevance, and those with the most up-to-date information were selected for inclusion.
The effects of cannabis, cannabinoids, and their administration routes on pain control efficacy and safety: A systematic review and network meta-analysis
Rabgay K, Waranuch N, Chaiyakunapruk N, Sawangjit R, Ingkaninan K and Dilokthornsakul P
To determine the effects of cannabis, cannabinoids, and their administration routes on pain and adverse euphoria events.
Medical cannabis and cannabinoids in rheumatology: where are we now?
Sarzi-Puttini P, Batticciotto A, Atzeni F, Bazzichi L, Di Franco M, Salaffi F, Marotto D, Ceribelli A, Ablin JN and Hauser W
: Clinicians involved in pain management can finally include cannabis or cannabis-related products in their therapeutic armamentarium as a growing number of countries have approved them for pain relief. Despite the several benefits attributed to analgesic, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of cannabinoids, there are still significant areas of uncertainty concerning their use in many fields of medicine. The biosynthesis and inactivation of cannabinoids are regulated by a complex signaling system of cannabinoid receptors, endocannabinoids (the endogenous ligands of cannabinoid receptors) and enzymes, with a variety of interactions with neuroendocrinological and immunological systems. : A review of studies carried out during clinical development of cannabis and cannabis medical products in systemic rheumatic diseases was performed, highlighting the aspects that we believe to be relevant to clinical practice. : The growing public opinion, pushing towards the legalization of the use of cannabis in chronic pain and various rheumatological conditions, makes it necessary to have educational programs that modify the concerns and widespread preconceptions related to this topic in the medical community by increasing confidence. More extensive basic and clinical research on the mechanisms and clinical utility of cannabis and derivatives in various diseases and their long-term side effects is necessary.
Cannabis Teratology Explains Current Patterns of Coloradan Congenital Defects: The Contribution of Increased Cannabinoid Exposure to Rising Teratological Trends
Reece AS and Hulse GK
Rising Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol concentrations in modern cannabis invites investigation of the teratological implications of prenatal cannabis exposure. Data from Colorado Responds to Children with Special Needs (CRCSN), National Survey of Drug Use and Health, and Drug Enforcement Agency was analyzed. Seven, 40, and 2 defects were rising, flat, and falling, respectively, and 10/12 summary indices rose. Atrial septal defect, spina bifida, microcephalus, Down's syndrome, ventricular septal defect, and patent ductus arteriosus rose, and along with central nervous system, cardiovascular, genitourinary, respiratory, chromosomal, and musculoskeletal defects rose 5 to 37 times faster than the birth rate (3.3%) to generate an excess of 11 753 (22%) major anomalies. Cannabis was the only drug whose use grew from 2000 to 2014 while pain relievers, cocaine, alcohol, and tobacco did not. The correlation of cannabis use with major defects in 2014 (2019 dataset) was = .77, = .0011. Multiple cannabinoids were linked with summary measures of congenital anomalies and were robust to multivariate adjustment.
[Cannabis-derived medicines for the treatment of chronic pain : Problems resulting from medical appraisals in the experience of the Medical Advisory Board of the Statutory Health Insurance Funds North]
Heidbreder M and van Treeck B
On March 10th 2017, the law amending narcotic and other regulations was expanded, thereby allowing physicians, irrespective of their specialization, to prescribe cannabis-derived medicines as magistral formulas or proprietary medicinal products at the expense of the German statutory health insurance (GKV). First prescription requires approval from the respective health insurance, which in turn commissions the Medical Advisory Board of the Statutory Health Insurance Funds (MDK) to prepare a medico-legal report.
Intraperitoneal cannabidiol attenuates neonatal germinal matrix hemorrhage-induced neuroinflamation and perilesional apoptosis
Abrantes De Lacerda Almeida T, Santos MV, Da Silva Lopes L, Goel G, Leonardo De Freitas R, De Medeiros P, Crippa JA and Machado HR
. As the survival of preterm infants has increased significantly, germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) has become an important public health issue. Nevertheless, treatment strategies for the direct neuronal injury are still scarce. The present study aims to analyze the neuroprotective properties of cannabidiol in germinal matrix hemorrhage. . 112 Wistar rat pups (P7) were submitted to an experimental collagenase induced model of GMH. Inflammatory response and neuronal death were analyzed both at the perilesional area as at the distant ipsilateral CA1 hippocampal area. Immunohistochemistry for GFAP and caspase 3 was used. The ipsilateral free water content was assessed for stimation of cerebral edema, and neurodevelopment and neurofunctional tests were conducted. . Reduction of reactive astrocytosis was observed both in the perilesional area 24 hours and 14 days after the hemorrhage lesion (p < 0.001) and in the of the ipsilateral hippocampal CA1 14 days after the hemorrhage lesion (p < 0.05) in the treated groups. Similarly, there was a reduction in the number of Caspase 3-positive astrocytes in the perilesional area in the treated groups 24 hours after the hemorrhage lesion (p < 0.001). Finally, we found a significant increase in the weight of the rats treated with cannabidiol. . The treatment of GMH with cannabidiol significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells and reactive astrocytes in the perilesional area and the ipsilateral hippocampus. In addition, this response was sustained 14 days after the hemorrhage. These results corroborate our hypothesis that cannabidiol is a potential neuroprotective agent in the treatment of germinal matrix hemorrhage.
Benefit of Tetrahydrocannabinol versus Cannabidiol for Common Palliative Care Symptoms
Casarett DJ, Beliveau JN and Arbus MS
To determine the relative contributions of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) to patients' self-ratings of efficacy for common palliative care symptoms. This is an electronic record-based retrospective cohort study. Model development used logistic regression with bootstrapped confidence intervals (CIs), with standard errors clustered to account for multiple observations by each patient. This is a national Canadian patient portal. A total of 2,431 patients participated. Self-ratings of efficacy of cannabis, defined as a three-point reduction in neuropathic pain, anorexia, anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, insomnia, and post-traumatic flashbacks. We included 26,150 observations between October 1, 2017 and November 28, 2018. Of the six symptoms, response was associated with increased THC:CBD ratio for neuropathic pain (odds ratio [OR]: 3.58; 95% CI: 1.32-9.68;  = 0.012), insomnia (OR: 2.93; 95% CI: 1.75-4.91;  < 0.001), and depressive symptoms (OR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.07-2.49;  = 0.022). Increased THC:CBD ratio was not associated with a greater response of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related flashbacks (OR: 1.43; 95% CI: 0.60-3.41;  = 0.415) or anorexia (OR: 1.61; 95% CI: 0.70-3.73;  = 0.265). The response for anxiety symptoms was not significant (OR: 1.13; 95% CI: 0.77-1.64;  = 0.53), but showed an inverted U-shaped curve, with maximal benefit at a 1:1 ratio (50% THC). These preliminary results offer a unique view of real-world medical cannabis use and identify several areas for future research.
Cannabis Use and Cognition in Adults Prescribed Opioids for Persistent Pain
Wildes M, Bigand TL, Layton ME and Wilson M
Adults with persistent pain frequently report cannabis use to help manage their symptoms. The impact of cannabis use on cognition in the presence of concurrent symptoms of depression and anxiety is poorly understood.
[Medical Cannabis-Related Relapse in a Patient with a History of Alcohol Abuse]
Flöther L, Peitek K, Bucher M and Benndorf RA
 In this report, a 60-year old patient with a history of mixed nociceptive and neuropathic chronic pain after successful removal of oral squamous cell cancer is described who received outpatient pain treatment in our clinic. Moreover, the patient presented with a history of alcohol abuse as well as anorexia and weight loss.
[High-dose dronabinol treatment vs. medicinal cannabis flowers]
Wendelmuth C and Gastmeier K
This article reports a case of pronounced, chronic lumboischialgia, which was not satisfactorily controlled by conventional analgesic treatment. The level of pain under high-dose dronabinol treatment with oral and inhalative administration as well as the way to reimburse the cost of medicinal cannabis flowers, the treatment success and criteria of the economic prescription procedure are presented.
Therapeutic impact of orally administered cannabinoid oil extracts in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis animal model of multiple sclerosis
Zhou T, Ahmad TK, Alrushaid S, Pozdirca M, Ethans K, Intrater H, Le T, Burczynski F, Kong J and Namaka M
There is a growing surge of investigative research involving the beneficial use of cannabinoids as novel interventional alternatives for multiple sclerosis (MS) and associated neuropathic pain (NPP). Using an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) animal model of MS, we demonstrate the therapeutic effectiveness of two cannabinoid oil extract formulations (10:10 & 1:20 - tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol) treatment. Our research findings confirm that cannabinoid treatment produces significant improvements in neurological disability scoring and behavioral assessments of NPP that directly result from their ability to reduce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production and enhance brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) production. Henceforth, this research represents a critical step in advancing the literature by scientifically validating the merit for medical cannabinoid use and sets the foundation for future clinical trials.
The use of cannabinoids for sleep: A critical review on clinical trials
Kuhathasan N, Dufort A, MacKillop J, Gottschalk R, Minuzzi L and Frey BN
Cannabis and its pharmacologically active constituents, phytocannabinoids, have long been reported to have multiple medicinal benefits. One association often reported by users is sedation and subjective improvements in sleep. To further examine this association, we conducted a critical review of clinical studies examining the effects of cannabinoids on subjective and objective measures of sleep. PubMED, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched using terms and synonyms related to cannabinoids and sleep. Articles chosen included randomized controlled trials and open label studies. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the quality of trials that compared cannabinoids with control interventions. The current literature focuses mostly on the use of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and/or cannabidiol (CBD) in the treatment of chronic health conditions such as multiple sclerosis, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and chronic pain. Sleep is often a secondary, rather than primary outcome in these studies. Many of the reviewed studies suggested that cannabinoids could improve sleep quality, decrease sleep disturbances, and decrease sleep onset latency. While many of the studies did show a positive effect on sleep, there are many limiting factors such as small sample sizes, examining sleep as a secondary outcome in the context of another illness, and relatively few studies using validated subjective or objective measurements. This review also identified several questions that should be addressed in future research. These questions include further elucidation of the dichotomy between the effects of THC and CBD, as well as identifying any long-term adverse effects of medicinal cannabinoid use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
Cannabidiol, cannabinol and their combinations act as peripheral analgesics in a rat model of myofascial pain
Wong H and Cairns BE
This study investigated whether local intramuscular injection of non-psychoactive cannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), cannabichromene (CBC) and their combinations can decrease nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced masticatory muscle sensitization in female rats.
Exposure to cannabinoids can lead to persistent cognitive and psychiatric disorders
Krebs MO, Kebir O and Jay TM
Cannabinoids are proposed in a wide array of medical indications. Yet, the evaluation of adverse effects in controlled clinical studies, following the evidence-based model, has partly been bypassed. On the other hand, studies on the consequences of recreational use of cannabis and experimental studies bring some insights on the potential long-term consequences of cannabinoids use.
Eicosanoid mediation of cannabinoid actions
Burstein SH
Interactions between cannabinoids and eicosanoids have been observed for the last several decades and account for a variety of cannabinoid actions. These were seen both in vitro and in vivo and may provide a molecular basis for these actions. Some of the topics included in this review are; effects on adenylate cyclase activity, alteration of behavioral responses, reduction of pain sensation, reduction and resolution of inflammation, hypotensive and vasorelaxant responses, anti-cancer and anti-metastatic activities, reduction of intraocular pressure and others. The most widely studied cannabinoids so far are tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. However, synthetic agents such as CP55,940, ajulemic acid, JWH-133 and WIN-55,212-2 were also investigated for interaction with eicosanoids. The endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol have been examined as well. Among the eicosanoids mediating cannabinoid actions are PGE, 15-deoxy-Δ-prostaglandin-J, lipoxin A, lipoxin B, and leukotriene B. Enzyme activities involved include monoacylglycerylipase, adenylatecyclase, phospholipase A, cyclooxygenases-1, 2 and 5, lipoxygenases-12 and 15. Receptors involved include CB1, CB2 and the EP3 and EP3 prostanoid receptors. While not all cannabinoid activities can be accounted for, many are best explained by eicosanoid participation. The recent surge in interest in "medical marijuana" makes understanding mechanisms of cannabinoid actions particularly important.
Cannabinoids: a new approach for pain control?
Lossignol D
To analyze available data related to the use of cannabinoids in medicine, with a special focus on pain management in cancer. The use of cannabis for medical purposes is growing but there are still numerous questions to be solved: effectiveness, safety, and specific indications.
[Progress in cannabis research from a pharmaceutical chemist's point of view]
Müller CE
Preparations of hemp, Cannabis sativa, have been used for thousands of years as recreational and therapeutic drugs. The most important constituents are the psychoactive (-)-trans-∆-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a partial agonist at cannabinoid (CB) receptors CB and CB, and the non-psychoactive pleiotropic cannabidiol (CBD). Both compounds are highly lipophilic, like the endogenous CB receptor agonists, the arachidonic acid derivatives anandamide and arachidonoyl glycerol. The CB receptors belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors, and the first X‑ray crystal structures of both CB receptors subtypes have recently been obtained, which will facilitate the rational design of novel synthetic ligands. Besides the already largely established indications such as chronic pain, chemotherapy-induced vomiting, multiple sclerosis-associated spasms, and cachexia, there is preliminary evidence for several further cannabinoid effects, which will have to be confirmed by clinical studies.
Cannabidiol (CBD) Consumption and Perceived Impact on Extrahepatic Symptoms in Patients with Autoimmune Hepatitis
Mathur K, Vuppalanchi V, Gelow K, Vuppalanchi R and Lammert C
Utilization and safety of cannabidiol (CBD) in patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) are currently unknown. We aimed to identify the frequency of CBD use, impact on symptoms, and safety profile.
Cannabidiol attenuates mechanical allodynia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats via serotonergic system activation through 5-HT1A receptors
Jesus CHA, Redivo DDB, Gasparin AT, Sotomaior BB, de Carvalho MC, Genaro K, Zuardi AW, Hallak JEC, Crippa JA, Zanoveli JM and da Cunha JM
Most diabetic patients describe moderate to severe pain symptoms whose pharmacological treatment is palliative and poorly effective. Cannabidiol (CBD) has shown promising results in painful conditions. Then, we aimed to investigate the potential antinociceptive effect of CBD over the mechanical allodynia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic (DBT) rats, as well as its involved mechanisms. Wistar adult male diabetic rats were treated acutely or sub-chronically (for 14 days) with CBD (0.1, 0.3 or 3 mg/kg, intraperitoneal; i.p.) and had their mechanical threshold assessed using the electronic Von Frey. Acute treatment with CBD (at doses of 0.3 and 3 mg/kg) exerted a significant anti-allodynic effect, which is not associated with locomotor impairment. The antinociceptive effect of CBD (3 mg/kg) was not altered by the pre-treatment with CB or CB receptor antagonists (AM251 and AM630; respectively; both at a dose of 1 mg/kg, i.p.) nor by glycine receptor antagonist (strychnine hydrochloride, 10 μg/rat, intrathecal, i.t.). However, this effect was completely prevented by the pre-treatment with the selective 5-HT receptor antagonist WAY 100135 (3 μg/rat, i.t.). Sub-chronic treatment with CBD (0.3 or 3 mg/kg) induced a sustained attenuation of the mechanical allodynia in DBT rats. DBT rats presented significantly lower spinal cord levels of serotonin, which was prevented by the daily treatment with CBD (0.3 mg/kg). Taken together, our data suggest that CBD may be effective in the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy and this effect seems to be potentially mediated by the serotonergic system activation through 5-HT receptors.
An Update of Current Cannabis-Based Pharmaceuticals in Pain Medicine
Urits I, Borchart M, Hasegawa M, Kochanski J, Orhurhu V and Viswanath O
Cannabis users have long reported therapeutic properties of the plant for a variety of conditions, some of which include nausea, emesis, seizures, cancer, neurogenic diseases and pain control. Research has elucidated many cannabinoid pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, expanding the potential use of cannabinoids as a medical therapy. Due to the inconsistent delivery and control of the active components involved with smoking, pharmaceutical companies are investigating and prioritizing routes other than smoke inhalation for therapeutic use of cannabinoids. In this relatively new field of pharmaceutical development, ongoing drug development promises great benefit from targeted endocannabinoid receptor agonism. Available in Canada and Europe, nabiximols, a specific extract from the Cannabis plant, has demonstrated great benefit in the treatment of pain related to spasticity in multiple sclerosis, cancer and otherwise chronic pain conditions. The cannabidiol oral solution Epidiolex®, which is available in the USA, is indicated for management of refractory epilepsy but may offer therapeutic relief to chronic pain conditions as well. Current investigative drugs, such as those developed by Cara Therapeutics and Zynerba Pharmaceuticals, are synthetic cannabinoids which show promise to specifically target neuropsychiatric conditions and chronic pain symptoms such as neuropathy and allodynia. The objective of this review is to provide clinicians with an update of currently available and promising developmental cannabis pharmaceutical derivatives which may stand to greatly benefit patients with otherwise difficult-to-treat chronic conditions.
Should Oncologists Recommend Cannabis?
Abrams DI
Cannabis is a useful botanical with a wide range of therapeutic potential. Global prohibition over the past century has impeded the ability to study the plant as medicine. However, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has been developed as a stand-alone pharmaceutical initially approved for the treatment of chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting in 1986. The indication was expanded in 1992 to include treatment of anorexia in patients with the AIDS wasting syndrome. Hence, if the dominant cannabinoid is available as a schedule III prescription medication, it would seem logical that the parent botanical would likely have similar therapeutic benefits. The system of cannabinoid receptors and endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) has likely developed to help us modulate our response to noxious stimuli. Phytocannabinoids also complex with these receptors, and the analgesic effects of cannabis are perhaps the best supported by clinical evidence. Cannabis and its constituents have also been reported to be useful in assisting with sleep, mood, and anxiety. Despite significant in vitro and animal model evidence supporting the anti-cancer activity of individual cannabinoids-particularly THC and cannabidiol (CBD)-clinical evidence is absent. A single intervention that can assist with nausea, appetite, pain, mood, and sleep is certainly a valuable addition to the palliative care armamentarium. Although many healthcare providers advise against the inhalation of a botanical as a twenty-first century drug-delivery system, evidence for serious harmful effects of cannabis inhalation is scant and a variety of other methods of ingestion are currently available from dispensaries in locales where patients have access to medicinal cannabis. Oncologists and palliative care providers should recommend this botanical remedy to their patients to gain first-hand evidence of its therapeutic potential despite the paucity of results from randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials to appreciate that it is both safe and effective and really does not require a package insert.
Efficacy and safety of cannabidiol followed by an open label add-on of tetrahydrocannabinol for the treatment of chronic pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis: protocol for a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled study
Hendricks O, Andersen TE, Christiansen AA, Primdahl J, Hauge EM, Ellingsen T, Horsted TI, Bachmann AG, Loft AG, Bojesen AB, Østergaard M, Lund Hetland M, Krogh NS, Roessler KK and Petersen KH
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are chronic, systemic, inflammatory diseases, primarily in the musculoskeletal system. Pain and fatigue are key symptoms of RA and AS. Treatment presents a clinical challenge for several reasons, including the progressive nature of the diseases and the involvement of multiple pain mechanisms. Moreover, side effects of pain treatment pose an implicit risk. Currently, no well-controlled studies have investigated how medical cannabis affects pain and cognitive functions in RA and AS. The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of medical cannabis in the treatment of persistent pain in patients with RA and AS with low disease activity.
Prevalence and correlates of medical cannabis patients' use of cannabis for recreational purposes
Morean ME and Lederman IR
Rates of legal medical cannabis (MC) use are increasing, but little is known about the prevalence and correlates of recreational cannabis (RC) use among medical users (MC/R).
The Endocannabinoid System and its Modulation by Cannabidiol (CBD)
Corroon J and Felice JF
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is an extensive endogenous signaling system with multiple elements, the number of which may be increasing as scientists continue to elucidate its role in human health and disease. The ECS is seemingly ubiquitous in animal species and is modulated by diet, sleep, exercise, stress, and a multitude of other factors, including exposure to phytocannabinoids, like Cannabidiol (CBD). Modulating the activity of this system may offer tremendous therapeutic promise for a diverse scope of diseases, ranging from mental health disorders, neurological and movement disorders, pain, autoimmune disease, spinal cord injury, cancer, cardiometabolic disease, stroke, TBI, osteoporosis, and others.
A Hemp oil, CBD, and Marijuana Primer: Powerful Pain, Insomnia, and Anxiety-relieving Tools!
Teitelbaum J
No Abstract Available.
leaf extract facilitates oligodendrocyte development
Kim JY, Yoon JY, Sugiura Y, Lee SK, Park JD, Song GJ and Yang HJ
Treatment of multiple sclerosis is effective when anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and regenerative strategies are combined. () has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative properties, which may be beneficial for multiple sclerosis. However, there have been no reports on the effects of on myelination, which is critical for regenerative processes. To know whether benefits myelination, we checked differentiation and myelination of oligodendrocytes (OLs) in various primary culture systems treated with leaf EtOH extracts or control. extracts increased the OL membrane size in the mixed glial and pure OL precursor cell (OPC) cultures and changed OL-lineage gene expression patterns in the OPC cultures. Western blot analysis of -treated OPC cultures showed upregulation of MBP and phosphorylation of ERK1/2. In myelinating cocultures, extracts enhanced OL differentiation, followed by increased axonal contacts and myelin gene upregulations such as Myrf, CNP and PLP. Phytochemical analysis by LC-MS/MS identified multiple components from extracts, containing bioactive molecules such as quercetin, cannabidiol, etc. Our results suggest extracts enhance OL differentiation, followed by an increase in membrane size and axonal contacts, thereby indicating enhanced myelination. In addition, we found that extracts contain multiple bioactive components, warranting further studies in relation to finding effective components for enhancing myelination.
CBD as the New Medicine in the Pain Provider's Armamentarium
Piermarini C and Viswanath O
Analog Derivatization of Cannabidiol for Improved Ocular Permeation
Taskar P, Adelli G, Patil A, Lakhani P, Ashour E, Gul W, ElSohly M and Majumdar S
Cannabidiol (CBD), active component of plant , has anti-inflammatory properties that could potentially help treat diabetic retinopathy-induced pain and inflammation. However, CBD is a lipophilic molecule making its topical delivery to back of the eye challenging. This study aims at improving ocular penetration of CBD by means of analog derivatization. Analogs were designed using various ligands, such as amino acids (AAs) and dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) and their combinations. Select analogs were screened with respect to their stability in ocular tissue homogenates. Based on stability, analogs were selected for testing. Formulations containing these compounds were tested in rabbits to determine ocular tissue disposition of CBD and the analogs after topical application. The rabbits were sacrificed 90 min post-topical application and the aqueous humor, vitreous humor (VH), iris-ciliary bodies (IC), and retina-choroid (RC) were analyzed for CBD and analog content. CBD-divalinate-dihemisuccinate (CBD-Di-VHS) and CBD-divalinate (CBD-Di-Val) were stable in the ocular tissue homogenates. Post-topical application, CBD and CBD-Di-Val analog levels were detected only in RC. Dosing of CBD-Di-VHS nanoemulsion generated analog levels both in the VH and in the RC, respectively. In contrast, post dosing of CBD-monovalinate-monohemisuccinate (CBD-Mono-VHS), both the analog and CBD were detected in the IC and RC. The analogs demonstrated superior penetration into ocular tissues in comparison with CBD. CBD-Di-VHS and CBD-Mono-VHS exhibited better permeation properties, possibly due to improved stability and physicochemical characteristics imparted by AA and DCA combination derivatives.
Cannabis Use Preferences and Decision-making Among a Cross-sectional Cohort of Medical Cannabis Patients with Chronic Pain
Boehnke KF, Scott JR, Litinas E, Sisley S, Clauw DJ, Goesling J and Williams DA
Cannabis is commonly used to manage chronic pain, but cannabis use patterns among individuals with chronic pain, has not been well-characterized. We report cannabinoid, administration route, and product selection preferences among medical cannabis users with chronic pain from an ongoing, online survey. We also examined whether these preferences are affected by differences in sex, intentions behind use (medical only [MED] vs medical + recreational [MEDREC]), and experience with cannabis (novice: <1 year vs experienced: ≥1 year). The survey was completed by 1,321 participants (59% female) 76.5% of whom used cannabis every day. 93.4% used 2 or more administration routes and 72.5% used 3 or more. Female, MED, and novice users were less likely to smoke or vaporize (all P < .0001), but more likely to rank edibles, tinctures, and topicals as a first-choice administration route than their counterparts. Female and MED users also preferred low THC: high cannabidiol ratios significantly more than their counterparts. Overall, only 2.6% of participants selected cannabis products with input from a medical professional, although 54.9% relied on advice from dispensary employees. More male, MEDREC, and experienced users selected products based on factors that reflected greater comfort with cannabis (eg, smell, visual properties, cannabis variety). The wide variability in cannabis use among these different groups indicates the need for further research to investigate how specific use routines relate to clinical outcomes. PERSPECTIVE: Medical cannabis users with chronic pain show distinct differences in cannabinoid preferences and administration associated with user sex, intentions behind use, and experience with cannabis. This article highlights the wide variability in cannabis preferences among medical cannabis users with chronic pain, which may be relevant for clinical outcomes.
Joints for joints: cannabinoids in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis
Lowin T, Schneider M and Pongratz G
An increasing number of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are using cannabis to treat their symptoms, although systematic studies regarding efficacy in RA are lacking. Within this review we will give an overview on the overall effects of cannabinoids in inflammation and why they might be useful in the treatment of RA.
Tetrahydrocannabinol - friend or foe? - Debate
Temple LM and Leikin JB
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is a psychoactive cannabinoid that has been used to treat various conditions. However, due to various adverse effects, its widespread promotion and use has been controversial. It is this aspect (encouraged by various state legislatures) that forms the basis for an edited debate between an Integrative Family Medicine physician and a Medical Toxicologist.
[Use of cannabidiol oil in children]
Wolff D and Reijneveld SA
Useof cannabidiol oil in children The use of cannabidioloil (CBD oil), a cannabis-derived chemical, is increasing. CBD oil is freely available in the Netherlands, but its composition and quality are not monitored. However, the alternative, pharmacist-prepared oil, is more expensive and difficult to acquire. Common reasons for CBD oil use in children include impulsive behaviour, itch, epilepsy, stress, pain and sleeping problems. However, evidence of its effectiveness is scarce and focuses primarily on the effectiveness of the oil in reducing epileptic seizures. Known side-effects are vomiting, diarrhoea, fever, sleepiness, and abnormal liver function test results. We advise medical professionals who encounter young patients who may potentially be using CBD oil, to discuss its questionable quality and potential side effects and interactions. If a patient presents with poorly-understood fever, diarrhoea, vomiting or drowsiness, then the side effects of CBD oil should be considered. Finally, CBD should be differentiated from delta-THC, a cannabis-derived chemical with a psychoactive effect, the use of which should be discouraged in children.
Safety, efficacy, and mechanisms of action of cannabinoids in neurological disorders
Friedman D, French JA and Maccarrone M
In the past two decades, there has been an increasing interest in the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids for neurological disorders such as epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, pain, and neurodegenerative diseases. Cannabis-based treatments for pain and spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis have been approved in some countries. Randomised controlled trials of plant-derived cannabidiol for treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome, two severe childhood-onset epilepsies, provide evidence of anti-seizure effects. However, small clinical trials of cannabinoids in other neurological disorders such as Huntington's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and dementia, have not found any effect. Despite positive results in these two severe epilepsy syndromes, further studies are needed to determine if the anti-seizure effects of cannabidiol extend to other forms of epilepsy, to overcome pharmacokinetic challenges with oral cannabinoids, and to uncover the exact mechanisms by which cannabidiol or other exogenous and endogenous cannabinoids exert their therapeutic effects.
Dark Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: Δ-Tetrahydrocannabinol
Banister SD, Arnold JC, Connor M, Glass M and McGregor IS
Cannabis ( Cannabis sativa) is the most widely used illicit drug in the world, with an estimated 192 million users globally. The main psychoactive component of cannabis is (-)- trans-Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-THC), a compound with a diverse range of pharmacological actions. The unique and distinctive intoxication caused by Δ-THC primarily reflects partial agonist action at central cannabinoid type 1 (CB) receptors. Δ-THC is an approved therapeutic treatment for a range of conditions, including chronic pain, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, and multiple sclerosis, and is being investigated in indications such as anorexia nervosa, agitation in dementia, and Tourette's syndrome. It is available as a regulated pharmaceutical in products such as Marinol, Sativex, and Namisol as well as in an ever-increasing range of unregistered medicinal and recreational cannabis products. While cannabis is an ancient medicament, contemporary use is embroiled in legal, scientific, and social controversy, much of which relates to the potential hazards and benefits of Δ-THC itself. Robust contemporary debate surrounds the therapeutic value of Δ-THC in different diseases, its capacity to produce psychosis and cognitive impairment, and the addictive and "gateway" potential of the drug. This review will provide a profile of the chemistry, pharmacology, and therapeutic uses of Δ-THC as well as the historical and societal import of this unique, distinctive, and ubiquitous psychoactive substance.
An experimental randomized study on the analgesic effects of pharmaceutical-grade cannabis in chronic pain patients with fibromyalgia
van de Donk T, Niesters M, Kowal MA, Olofsen E, Dahan A and van Velzen M
In this experimental randomized placebo-controlled 4-way crossover trial, we explored the analgesic effects of inhaled pharmaceutical-grade cannabis in 20 chronic pain patients with fibromyalgia. We tested 4 different cannabis varieties with exact knowledge on their [INCREMENT]-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) content: Bedrocan (22.4-mg THC, <1-mg CBD; Bedrocan International BV, Veendam, the Netherlands), Bediol (13.4-mg THC, 17.8-mg CBD; Bedrocan International BV, Veendam, the Netherlands), Bedrolite (18.4-mg CBD, <1-mg THC; Bedrocan International BV, Veendam, the Netherlands), and a placebo variety without any THC or CBD. After a single vapor inhalation, THC and CBD plasma concentrations, pressure and electrical pain thresholds, spontaneous pain scores, and drug high were measured for 3 hours. None of the treatments had an effect greater than placebo on spontaneous or electrical pain responses, although more subjects receiving Bediol displayed a 30% decrease in pain scores compared to placebo (90% vs 55% of patients, P = 0.01), with spontaneous pain scores correlating with the magnitude of drug high (ρ = -0.5, P < 0.001). Cannabis varieties containing THC caused a significant increase in pressure pain threshold relative to placebo (P < 0.01). Cannabidiol inhalation increased THC plasma concentrations but diminished THC-induced analgesic effects, indicative of synergistic pharmacokinetic but antagonistic pharmacodynamic interactions of THC and CBD. This experimental trial shows the complex behavior of inhaled cannabinoids in chronic pain patients with just small analgesic responses after a single inhalation. Further studies are needed to determine long-term treatment effects on spontaneous pain scores, THC-CBD interactions, and the role of psychotropic symptoms on pain relief.
Future Aspects for Cannabinoids in Breast Cancer Therapy
Kisková T, Mungenast F, Suváková M, Jäger W and Thalhammer T
Cannabinoids (CBs) from provide relief for tumor-associated symptoms (including nausea, anorexia, and neuropathic pain) in the palliative treatment of cancer patients. Additionally, they may decelerate tumor progression in breast cancer patients. Indeed, the psychoactive delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), non-psychoactive cannabidiol (CBD) and other CBs inhibited disease progression in breast cancer models. The effects of CBs on signaling pathways in cancer cells are conferred via G-protein coupled CB-receptors (CB-Rs), CB1-R and CB2-R, but also via other receptors, and in a receptor-independent way. THC is a partial agonist for CB1-R and CB2-R; CBD is an inverse agonist for both. In breast cancer, CB1-R expression is moderate, but CB2-R expression is high, which is related to tumor aggressiveness. CBs block cell cycle progression and cell growth and induce cancer cell apoptosis by inhibiting constitutive active pro-oncogenic signaling pathways, such as the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase pathway. They reduce angiogenesis and tumor metastasis in animal breast cancer models. CBs are not only active against estrogen receptor-positive, but also against estrogen-resistant breast cancer cells. In human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive and triple-negative breast cancer cells, blocking protein kinase B- and cyclooxygenase-2 signaling via CB2-R prevents tumor progression and metastasis. Furthermore, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), including tamoxifen, bind to CB-Rs; this process may contribute to the growth inhibitory effect of SERMs in cancer cells lacking the estrogen receptor. In summary, CBs are already administered to breast cancer patients at advanced stages of the disease, but they might also be effective at earlier stages to decelerate tumor progression.
Cannabidiol: The Need for More Information About Its Potential Benefits and Side Effects
Hande K
Consumer demand for cannabidiol (CBD) oil has increased, with growing sales from dispensaries because of the alleged medicinal benefits. Although studies examining the specific therapeutic effects of CBD are increasing, clinical data do not support the popular uses of CBD for Parkinson disease, schizophrenia, cancer palliation and treatment, chronic pain and spasticity, depression, anxiety disorder, insomnia, and inflammation.
Combined tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol to treat pain in epidermolysis bullosa: a report of three cases
Schräder NHB, Duipmans JC, Molenbuur B, Wolff AP and Jonkman MF
Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a genetic blistering disorder characterized by intense pain related to disease pathology and care-based interventions. Opioid-based therapies underpin pain care in EB; however, they are unable to provide adequate analgesia in a significant proportion of patients. Cannabinoid-based medicines (CBMs) have been studied increasingly for pain conditions of various aetiologies and pose as a novel dimension for pain care in EB. We present three patients with EB who were prescribed pharmaceutical-grade sublingually administered CBMs comprising tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. All three patients reported improved pain scores, reduced pruritus and reduction in overall analgesic drug intake.
Impact of recreational and medicinal marijuana on surgical patients: A review
Bakshi C and Barrett AM
As medicinal and recreational marijuana use broadens across the United States, knowledge of its effects on the body will become increasingly important to all health care providers, including surgeons.
Cannabinoids: the lows and the highs of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting
Mortimer TL, Mabin T and Engelbrecht AM
Despite remaining one of the most widely abused drugs worldwide, Cannabis sativa exhibits remarkable medicinal properties. The phytocannabinoids, cannabidiol and Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, reduce nausea and vomiting, particularly during chemotherapy. This is attributed to their ability to reduce the release of serotonin from enterochromaffin cells in the small intestine, which would otherwise orchestrate the vomiting reflex. Although there are many preclinical and clinical studies on the effects of Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol during nausea and vomiting, little is known about the role that cannabidiol plays in this scenario. Since cannabidiol does not induce psychotropic effects, in contrast to other cannabinoids, its use as an anti-emetic is of great interest. This review aims to summarize the available literature on cannabinoid use, with a specific focus on the nonpsychotropic drug cannabidiol, as well as the roles that cannabinoids play in preventing several other adverse side effects of chemotherapy including organ toxicity, pain and loss of appetite.
Development of a validated method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of cannabinoids in plant biomass and medicinal cannabis resin extracts obtained by super-critical fluid extraction
Elkins AC, Deseo MA, Rochfort S, Ezernieks V and Spangenberg G
The social push for the therapeutic use of cannabis extracts has increased significantly over recent years. Cannabis is being used for treatment for conditions such as epilepsy, cancer and pain management. There are a range of medicinal cannabis products available, but the use of cannabis resin obtained by super critical fluid extraction, often diluted in oil, is becoming increasingly more prominent. Much of the research on cannabis has focused on plant biomass or the final therapeutic product with a concerning lack of information on the intermediate resin. This study aims to bridge the gap between current methods of analysis for biomass and the final therapeutic product by describing a fully developed and validated ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography method with diode array detection (UHPLC-DAD) for the qualification and quantification of the cannabinoids CBDA, CBD, CBN, THC, CBC and THCA, in medicinal cannabis biomass and resin obtained by super-critical fluid extraction (SFE). The method was validated for specificity, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), precision, accuracy, robustness, spike recovery and stability in accordance with the Validation of Analytical Procedures: Text and Methodology Q2 to meet the requirements of the International Council for Harmonisation (ICH), Therapeutic Goods Authority (TGA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) test method validation regulations.
Patterns of Medical Cannabis Use among Cancer Patients from a Medical Cannabis Dispensary in New York State
Kim A, Kaufmann CN, Ko R, Li Z and Han BH
Research on the patterns of use of medical cannabis among cancer patients is lacking.
A Brief Background on Cannabis: From Plant to Medical Indications
Klumpers LE and Thacker DL
Cannabis has been used as a medicinal plant for thousands of years. As a result of centuries of breeding and selection, there are now over 700 varieties of cannabis that contain hundreds of compounds, including cannabinoids and terpenes. Cannabinoids are fatty compounds that are the main biological active constituents of cannabis. Terpenes are volatile compounds that occur in many plants and have distinct odors. Cannabinoids exert their effect on the body by binding to receptors, specifically cannabinoid receptors types 1 and 2. These receptors, together with endogenous cannabinoids and the systems for synthesis, transport, and degradation, are called the Endocannabinoid System. The two most prevalent and commonly known cannabinoids in the cannabis plant are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol. The speed, strength, and type of effects of cannabis vary based on the route of administration. THC is rapidly distributed through the body to fatty tissues like the brain and is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system to 11-hydroxy-THC, which is also psychoactive. Cannabis and cannabinoids have been indicated for several medical conditions. There is evidence of efficacy in the symptomatic treatment of nausea and vomiting, pain, insomnia, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, loss of appetite, Tourette's syndrome, and epilepsy. Cannabis has also been associated with treatment for glaucoma, Huntington's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, and dystonia, but there is not good evidence to support its efficacy. Side effects of cannabis include psychosis and anxiety, which can be severe. Here, we provided a summary of the history of cannabis, its pharmacology, and its medical uses.
GPR3, GPR6, and GPR12 as novel molecular targets: their biological functions and interaction with cannabidiol
Laun AS, Shrader SH, Brown KJ and Song ZH
The G protein-coupled receptors 3, 6, and 12 (GPR3, GPR6, and GPR12) comprise a family of closely related orphan receptors with no confirmed endogenous ligands. These receptors are constitutively active and capable of signaling through G protein-mediated and non-G protein-mediated mechanisms. These orphan receptors have previously been reported to play important roles in many normal physiological functions and to be involved in a variety of pathological conditions. Although they are orphans, GPR3, GPR6, and GPR12 are phylogenetically most closely related to the cannabinoid receptors. Using β-arrestin2 recruitment and cAMP accumulation assays, we recently found that the nonpsychoactive phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) is an inverse agonist for GPR3, GPR6, and GPR12. This discovery highlights these orphan receptors as potential new molecular targets for CBD, provides novel mechanisms of action, and suggests new therapeutic uses of CBD for illnesses such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cancer, and infertility. Furthermore, identification of CBD as a new inverse agonist for GPR3, GPR6, and GPR12 provides the initial chemical scaffolds upon which potent and efficacious agents acting on these receptors can be developed, with the goal of developing chemical tools for studying these orphan receptors and ultimately new therapeutic agents.
Sativex as add-on therapy vs. further optimized first-line ANTispastics (SAVANT) in resistant multiple sclerosis spasticity: a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised clinical trial
Markovà J, Essner U, Akmaz B, Marinelli M, Trompke C, Lentschat A and Vila C
Purpose/aim: To evaluate the efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC):cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray (Sativex) as add-on therapy to optimised standard antispasticity treatment in patients with moderate to severe multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity.
Survey of Australian psychiatrists' and psychiatry trainees' knowledge about and attitudes towards medicinal cannabinoids
Jacobs NI, Montebello M, Monds LA and Lintzeris N
To assess Australian psychiatrists' and psychiatry trainees' knowledge about and attitudes towards medicinal cannabinoids, given the recent relaxation of cannabinoid-prescribing laws in Australia.
Cannabidiol modulates serotonergic transmission and reverses both allodynia and anxiety-like behavior in a model of neuropathic pain
De Gregorio D, McLaughlin RJ, Posa L, Ochoa-Sanchez R, Enns J, Lopez-Canul M, Aboud M, Maione S, Comai S and Gobbi G
Clinical studies indicate that cannabidiol (CBD), the primary nonaddictive component of cannabis that interacts with the serotonin (5-HT)1A receptor, may possess analgesic and anxiolytic effects. However, its effects on 5-HT neuronal activity, as well as its impact on models of neuropathic pain are unknown. First, using in vivo single-unit extracellular recordings in rats, we demonstrated that acute intravenous (i.v.) increasing doses of CBD (0.1-1.0 mg/kg) decreased the firing rate of 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus, which was prevented by administration of the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY 100635 (0.3 mg/kg, i.v.) and the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine (1 mg/kg, i.v.) but not by the CB1 receptor antagonist AM 251 (1 mg/kg, i.v.). Repeated treatment with CBD (5 mg/kg/day, subcutaneously [s.c.], for 7 days) increased 5-HT firing through desensitization of 5-HT1A receptors. Rats subjected to the spared nerve injury model for 24 days showed decreased 5-HT firing activity, mechanical allodynia, and increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze test, open-field test, and novelty-suppressed feeding test. Seven days of treatment with CBD reduced mechanical allodynia, decreased anxiety-like behavior, and normalized 5-HT activity. Antiallodynic effects of CBD were fully prevented by capsazepine (10 mg/kg/day, s.c., for 7 days) and partially prevented by WAY 100635 (2 mg/kg/day, s.c., for 7 days), whereas the anxiolytic effect was blocked only by WAY. Overall, repeated treatment with low-dose CBD induces analgesia predominantly through TRPV1 activation, reduces anxiety through 5-HT1A receptor activation, and rescues impaired 5-HT neurotransmission under neuropathic pain conditions.
Adherence to Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) Guidelines for Reporting Safety Outcomes in Trials of Cannabinoids for Chronic Pain: Protocol for a Systematic Review
Mohiuddin MM, Mizubuti G, Haroutounian S, Smith S, Campbell F, Park R and Gilron I
Chronic pain affects a significant proportion of the population and presents a major challenge to clinicians and pain specialists. Despite the availability of pharmacologic treatment options such as opioids, many patients continue to experience persistent pain. Cannabinoids present an alternative option with some data on efficacy; however, to date, a systematic review of adverse events (AEs) assessment and reporting in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) involving cannabinoids has not been performed. As a result, it is unclear whether a clear profile of cannabinoid-associated AEs has been accurately detailed in the literature. As cannabinoids are likely to become readily available for patients in the near future, it is important to study how well AEs have been reported in trials so that the safety profile of cannabinoids can be better understood.
Exploring cannabis use by patients with multiple sclerosis in a state where cannabis is legal
Weinkle L, Domen CH, Shelton I, Sillau S, Nair K and Alvarez E
Studies suggest cannabis may improve symptoms like pain and muscle spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Despite cannabis' new-found legality and availability, few studies have explored the profile of PwMS cannabis users and characteristics of their use, particularly in a state where cannabis is legal both for recreational and medicinal use. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate cannabis use among PwMS at a large academic multiple sclerosis (MS) clinic, specifically: (1) prevalence, (2) products used (e.g., cannabidiol vs Δ-tetrahydocannabinol), (3) symptom treatment, and (4) patient characteristics.
Patient Counseling Guidelines for the Use of Cannabis for the Treatment of Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea/Vomiting and Chronic Pain
Makary P, Parmar JR, Mims N, Khanfar NM and Freeman RA
The use of cannabis medications has grown in recent years for the symptomatic relief of chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting (CINV) and chronic pain (cancer-related and non-cancer-related). As states legalize the use of cannabis, it is important for pharmacists and other health care professionals to be aware of how to counsel patients receiving prescriptions for cannabis medications. The aim of this study was to develop patient counseling guidelines for the use of cannabis products in treatment of CINV and chronic pain. A literature search was performed using Medline/PubMed resources and Google Scholar between July 2015 and August 2018 using broad search terms, e.g., cannabinoids adverse effects, cannabis, natural cannabinoids, and tetrahydrocannabinol. Using the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists patient counseling guidelines and medical information on cannabis medications gathered from drug databases, a comprehensive counseling guideline was developed. Medical evidence of the use of natural cannabis medications that are smoked or orally ingested have not been studied as extensively as oral therapeutic agents currently available. Cannabis medications have become more prevalent by approval of legislators in several states. Hence, pharmacists and health care professionals should counsel patients effectively on its use. This guideline needs to be tested to assess its utility in patients.
Natural Negative Allosteric Modulators of 5-HT₃ Receptors
Al Kury LT, Mahgoub M, Howarth FC and Oz M
Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) remain the most common and devastating side-effects associated with cancer chemotherapy. In recent decades, several lines of research emphasize the importance of 5-hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT serotonin) receptors in the pathogenesis and treatment of CINV. 5-HT₃ receptors are members of ligand-gated ion channels that mediate the rapid and transient membrane-depolarizing effect of 5-HT in the central and peripheral nervous system. These receptors play important roles in nausea and vomiting, as well as regulation of peristalsis and pain transmission. The development of antagonists for 5-HT₃ receptor dramatically improved the treatment of CINV in cancer patients. In fact, the most common use of 5-HT₃ receptor antagonists to date is the treatment of nausea and vomiting. In recent years, there has been an increasing tendency to use natural plant products as important therapeutic entities in the treatment of various diseases. In this article, we examined the results of earlier studies on the actions of natural compounds on the functional properties of 5-HT₃ receptors. It is likely that these natural modulators of 5-HT₃ receptors can be employed as lead structures for the synthesis of therapeutic agents for treating CINV in future clinical studies.
Medical Use of Cannabinoids
Fraguas-Sánchez AI and Torres-Suárez AI
Cannabinoid receptors, endocannabinoids and the enzymes responsible for their biosynthesis and degradation constitute the endocannabinoid system. In recent decades, the endocannabinoid system has attracted considerable interest as a potential therapeutic target in numerous pathological conditions. Its involvement in several physiological processes is well known, such as in energy balance, appetite stimulation, blood pressure, pain modulation, embryogenesis, nausea and vomiting control, memory, learning and immune response, among others, as well as in pathological conditions where it exerts a protective role in the development of certain disorders. As a result, it has been reported that changes in endocannabinoid levels may be related to neurological diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis, as well as anorexia and irritable bowel syndrome. Alterations in the endocannabinoid system have also been associated with cancer, affecting the growth, migration and invasion of some tumours. Cannabinoids have been tested in several cancer types, including brain, breast and prostate cancers. Cannabinoids have shown promise as analgesics for the treatment of both inflammatory and neuropathic pain. There is also evidence for a role of the endocannabinoid system in the control of emotional states, and cannabinoids could prove useful in decreasing and palliating post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and anxiolytic disorders. The role of the endocannabinoid system in addictions has also been examined, and cannabinoids have been postulated as alternative and co-adjuvant treatments in some abuse syndromes, mainly in ethanol and opioid abuses. The expression of the endocannabinoid system in the eye suggests that it could be a potential therapeutic target for eye diseases. Considering the importance of the endocannabinoid system and the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in this vast number of medical conditions, several clinical studies with cannabinoid-based medications are ongoing. In addition, some cannabinoid-based medications have already been approved in various countries, including nabilone and dronabinol capsules for the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, dronabinol capsules for anorexia, an oral solution of dronabinol for both vomiting associated with chemotherapy and anorexia, a Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol oromucosal spray for pain related to cancer and for spasticity and pain associated with multiple sclerosis, and an oral solution of cannabidiol for Dravet and Lennox-Gastaut syndromes. Here, we review the available efficacy, safety and tolerability data for cannabinoids in a range of medical conditions.
A UHPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in decoctions and in plasma samples for therapeutic monitoring of medical cannabis
Barco S, Fucile C, Manfredini L, De Grandis E, Gherzi M, Martelli A, Tripodi G, Mattioli F and Cangemi G
Monitoring of blood levels of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) is necessary for optimization of administration of medical cannabis. We describe the validation of a ultra-HPLC-MS/MS method for quantifying THC and CBD from plasma and decoctions and its application for therapeutic drug monitoring.Materials & methods: Analyses were performed by using a TSQ Quantiva™ Triple Quadrupole coupled to a Ultimate 3000 UHPLC system with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization after sample preparation with a straightforward method with deuterated internal standards.
Effect of cannabidiolic acid and ∆-tetrahydrocannabinol on carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia and edema in a rodent model of inflammatory pain
Rock EM, Limebeer CL and Parker LA
Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-intoxicating component of cannabis, or the psychoactive Δ-tetrahydrocannabiol (THC), shows anti-hyperalgesia and anti-inflammatory properties.
Cannabidiol modulation of antinociceptive tolerance to Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol
Greene NZ, Wiley JL, Yu Z, Clowers BH and Craft RM
Humans typically self-administer cannabidiol (CBD) and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) together repeatedly (as in cannabis, cannabis extract, or Sativex®) to relieve pain. It has been suggested that one benefit of the drug combination may be decreased tolerance development.
Report of Objective Clinical Responses of Cancer Patients to Pharmaceutical-grade Synthetic Cannabidiol
Kenyon J, Liu W and Dalgleish A
Cannabinoids are widely used in the management of pain, nausea and cachexia in cancer patients. However, there has been no objective clinical evidence of any anticancer activity yet. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of pharmaceutical-grade synthetic cannabidiol on a range of cancer patients.
Effect of Vaporized Cannabis on Exertional Breathlessness and Exercise Endurance in Advanced Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. A Randomized Controlled Trial
Abdallah SJ, Smith BM, Ware MA, Moore M, Li PZ, Bourbeau J and Jensen D
A series of studies conducted approximately 40 years ago demonstrated an acute bronchodilator effect of smoked cannabis in healthy adults and adults with asthma. However, the acute effects of vaporized cannabis on airway function in adults with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain unknown.
Cannabidiol enhances morphine antinociception, diminishes NMDA-mediated seizures and reduces stroke damage via the sigma 1 receptor
Rodríguez-Muñoz M, Onetti Y, Cortés-Montero E, Garzón J and Sánchez-Blázquez P
Cannabidiol (CBD), the major non-psychotomimetic compound present in the Cannabis sativa plant, exhibits therapeutic potential for various human diseases, including chronic neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, ischemic stroke, epilepsy and other convulsive syndromes, neuropsychiatric disorders, neuropathic allodynia and certain types of cancer. CBD does not bind directly to endocannabinoid receptors 1 and 2, and despite research efforts, its specific targets remain to be fully identified. Notably, sigma 1 receptor (σ1R) antagonists inhibit glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate acid receptor (NMDAR) activity and display positive effects on most of the aforesaid diseases. Thus, we investigated the effects of CBD on three animal models in which NMDAR overactivity plays a critical role: opioid analgesia attenuation, NMDA-induced convulsive syndrome and ischemic stroke. In an in vitro assay, CBD disrupted the regulatory association of σ1R with the NR1 subunit of NMDAR, an effect shared by σ1R antagonists, such as BD1063 and progesterone, and prevented by σ1R agonists, such as 4-IBP, PPCC and PRE084. The in vivo administration of CBD or BD1063 enhanced morphine-evoked supraspinal antinociception, alleviated NMDA-induced convulsive syndrome, and reduced the infarct size caused by permanent unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion. These positive effects of CBD were reduced by the σ1R agonists PRE084 and PPCC, and absent in σ1R mice. Thus, CBD displays antagonist-like activity toward σ1R to reduce the negative effects of NMDAR overactivity in the abovementioned experimental situations.
Cannabinoid Delivery Systems for Pain and Inflammation Treatment
Bruni N, Della Pepa C, Oliaro-Bosso S, Pessione E, Gastaldi D and Dosio F
There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that cannabinoids are beneficial for a range of clinical conditions, including pain, inflammation, epilepsy, sleep disorders, the symptoms of multiple sclerosis, anorexia, schizophrenia and other conditions. The transformation of cannabinoids from herbal preparations into highly regulated prescription drugs is therefore progressing rapidly. The development of such drugs requires well-controlled clinical trials to be carried out in order to objectively establish therapeutic efficacy, dose ranges and safety. The low oral bioavailability of cannabinoids has led to feasible methods of administration, such as the transdermal route, intranasal administration and transmucosal adsorption, being proposed. The highly lipophilic nature of cannabinoids means that they are seen as suitable candidates for advanced nanosized drug delivery systems, which can be applied via a range of routes. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery strategies have flourished in several therapeutic fields in recent years and numerous drugs have reached the market. This review explores the most recent developments, from preclinical to advanced clinical trials, in the cannabinoid delivery field, and focuses particularly on pain and inflammation treatment. Likely future directions are also considered and reported.
Medical Cannabis for Pediatric Moderate to Severe Complex Motor Disorders
Libzon S, Schleider LB, Saban N, Levit L, Tamari Y, Linder I, Lerman-Sagie T and Blumkin L
A complex motor disorder is a combination of various types of abnormal movements that are associated with impaired quality of life (QOL). Current therapeutic options are limited. We studied the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of medical cannabis in children with complex motor disorder. This pilot study was approved by the institutional ethics committee. Two products of cannabidiol (CBD) enriched 5% oil formulation of cannabis were compared: one with 0.25% δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) 20:1 group, the other with 0.83% THC 6:1 group. Patients aged 1 to 17 years (n = 25) with complex motor disorder were enrolled. The assigned medication was administered for 5 months. Significant improvement in spasticity and dystonia, sleep difficulties, pain severity, and QOL was observed in the total study cohort, regardless of treatment assignment. Adverse effects were rare and included worsening of seizures in 2 patients, behavioral changes in 2 and somnolence in 1.
Medical Cannabis for the Treatment of Fibromyalgia
Crestani F
Self-initiated use of topical cannabidiol oil for epidermolysis bullosa
Chelliah MP, Zinn Z, Khuu P and Teng JMC
Epidermolysis bullosa is a rare blistering skin disorder that is challenging to manage because skin fragility and repeated wound healing cause itching, pain, limited mobility, and recurrent infections. Cannabidiol, an active cannabinoid found in cannabis, is postulated to have antiinflammatory and analgesic effects. We report 3 cases of self-initiated topical cannabidiol use in patients with epidermolysis bullosa in an observational study. One patient was weaned completely off oral opioid analgesics. All 3 reported faster wound healing, less blistering, and amelioration of pain with cannabidiol use. Although these results demonstrate promise, further randomized, double-blind clinical trials are necessary to provide scientific evidence of our observed benefits of cannabidiol for the treatment of epidermolysis bullosa.
The non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) attenuates pro-inflammatory mediators, T cell infiltration, and thermal sensitivity following spinal cord injury in mice
Li H, Kong W, Chambers CR, Yu D, Ganea D, Tuma RF and Ward SJ
We evaluated the effects of the non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) on the inflammatory response and recovery of function following spinal cord injury (SCI). Female C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to spinal cord contusion injury (T9-10) and received vehicle or CBD (1.5 mg/kg IP) injections for 10 weeks following injury. The effect of SCI and CBD treatment on inflammation was assessed via microarray, qRT-PCR and flow cytometry. Locomotor and bladder function and changes in thermal and mechanical hind paw sensitivity were also evaluated. There was a significant decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines associated with T-cell differentiation and invasion in the SCI-CBD group as well as a decrease in T cell invasion into the injured cord. A higher percentage of SCI mice in the vehicle-treated group (SCI-VEH) went on to develop moderate to severe (0-65.9% baseline thermal threshold) thermal sensitivity as compared with CBD-treated (SCI-CBD) mice. CBD did not affect recovery of locomotor or bladder function following SCI. Taken together, CBD treatment attenuated the development of thermal sensitivity following spinal cord injury and this effect may be related to protection against pathological T-cell invasion.
Plant-Based Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Chronic Neuropathic Pain
Casey SL and Vaughan CW
Chronic neuropathic pain is a prevalent condition that places a heavy burden on individuals and the healthcare system. Current medications have limitations and new approaches are needed, particularly given the current opioid crisis. There is some clinical evidence that the plant produces relief from neuropathic pain. However, current meta-analyses suggest that this efficacy is limited and there are problems with side effects. Most of this clinical research has examined whole cannabis, the psychoactive phytocannabinoid 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and nabiximols, which are a mixture of THC and the non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid cannabidiol. In the past, there has been little evidence based, preclinical animal research to guide clinical studies on phytocannabinoids. Recent animal studies indicate that while THC and high dose nabiximols are effective in animal neuropathic pain models, significant pain relief is only achieved at doses that produce substantial side effects. By contrast, cannabidiol and low dose nabiximols have moderate pain relieving efficacy, but are devoid of cannabinoid-like side effects. This animal data suggests that cannabidiol and low dose nabiximols warrant consideration for clinical studies, at least as adjuvants to current drugs. Preclinical research is also required to identify other phytocannabinoids that have therapeutic potential.
Medicinal Properties of Cannabinoids, Terpenes, and Flavonoids in Cannabis, and Benefits in Migraine, Headache, and Pain: An Update on Current Evidence and Cannabis Science
Baron EP
Comprehensive literature reviews of historical perspectives and evidence supporting cannabis/cannabinoids in the treatment of pain, including migraine and headache, with associated neurobiological mechanisms of pain modulation have been well described. Most of the existing literature reports on the cannabinoids Δ -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), or cannabis in general. There are many cannabis strains that vary widely in the composition of cannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids, and other compounds. These components work synergistically to produce wide variations in benefits, side effects, and strain characteristics. Knowledge of the individual medicinal properties of the cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids is necessary to cross-breed strains to obtain optimal standardized synergistic compositions. This will enable targeting individual symptoms and/or diseases, including migraine, headache, and pain.
Priority areas for cannabis and cannabinoid product research in South Africa
Augustine TN, Cairns CJ, Chetty S, Dannatt LG, Gravett N, Grey G, Grobler G, Jafta Z, Kamerman P, Lopes J, Matsabisa MG, Mugabo P, Mulder M, Parry C, Rataemane S, Siegfried N, Steenkamp V, Thomas E and Van Zyl-Smit R
No abstract available.
Cannabinoids for Treatment of MS Symptoms: State of the Evidence
Rice J and Cameron M
Cannabis and cannabinoids have been used medically and recreationally for thousands of years and recently there has been a growing body of research in this area. With increased access now that medical marijuana is available in many jurisdictions, patients and providers want to know more about the evidence for benefits and risks of cannabinoid use. This paper provides an overview of the available cannabinoid-based formulations, a summary of the highest quality evidence for the use of cannabinoids for treating spasticity and pain associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), and a discussion of possible dosing regimens based on information from these studies.
Pain Modulation after Oromucosal Cannabinoid Spray (SATIVEX) in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Study with Quantitative Sensory Testing and Laser-Evoked Potentials
Turri M, Teatini F, Donato F, Zanette G, Tugnoli V, Deotto L, Bonetti B and Squintani G
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) (nabiximols or Sativex) is an oromucosal spray formulation containing THC and CBD at an approximately 1:1 fixed ratio. Its administration for the treatment of pain in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has been established. MS patients generally complain of different kinds of pain, including spasticity-related and neuropathic pain. In this study, we compared and evaluated pain modulation and thermal/pain threshold of MS patients before and after THC/CBD administration. 19 MS patients underwent clinical examination, numerical rating scale (NRS), quantitative sensory testing (QST), and laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) before and after 1 month of therapy. Psychophysiological and neurophysiological data were compared to sex- and age-matched controls. Patients reported a significant reduction in pain. We found statistically significant differences in LEP parameters between patients and controls but no significant change in LEP measures after THC/CBD therapy. Cold and heat detection thresholds were altered in patients but did not change after THC/CBD therapy. There was a significant increase in cold pain threshold by hand stimulation and a significant reduction in abnormal cold perception thresholds. Our results indicate that Sativex therapy provides pain relief in MS patients and suggest that it might modulate peripheral cold-sensitive TRP channels.
[Cannabinoid therapy in practice]
Rasche T, Emmert D, Stieber C, Mücke M and Conrad R
In recent years, the media and scientists have shown increased interest in cannabis-based drugs.
Patterns of medicinal cannabis use, strain analysis, and substitution effect among patients with migraine, headache, arthritis, and chronic pain in a medicinal cannabis cohort
Baron EP, Lucas P, Eades J and Hogue O
Medicinal cannabis registries typically report pain as the most common reason for use. It would be clinically useful to identify patterns of cannabis treatment in migraine and headache, as compared to arthritis and chronic pain, and to analyze preferred cannabis strains, biochemical profiles, and prescription medication substitutions with cannabis.
Cannabis Use, Lung Cancer, and Related Issues
Jett J, Stone E, Warren G and Cummings KM
The cannabis plant and its derivatives have been exploited for centuries for recreational and medicinal purposes, with millions of regular users around the world. The recreational use of cannabis is reflective of its neuropsychiatric effects, such as anxiolysis and euphoria. However, cannabis appears to have an emerging therapeutic role, especially in chronic disease and as an adjunct to cancer treatment. Increasing evidence supports cannabis in the management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) and for pain management; however, studies are limited, particularly by difficulties associated with standardized dosing estimates and inability to accurately assess biologic activities of compounds in cannabis and derivative products. Smoking cannabis has not been proved to be a risk factor in the development of lung cancer, but the data are limited by small studies, misclassification due to self-reporting of use, small numbers of heavy cannabis smokers, and confounding of the risk associated with known causative agents for lung cancer (such as parallel chronic tobacco use). Cannabis and its biologically effective derivatives warrant additional research, ideally, controlled trials in which the cannabidiol and the delta-9-tetrahydrocabinol strength and use are controlled and documented.
Current evidence of cannabinoid-based analgesia obtained in preclinical and human experimental settings
Lötsch J, Weyer-Menkhoff I and Tegeder I
Cannabinoids have a long record of recreational and medical use and become increasingly approved for pain therapy. This development is based on preclinical and human experimental research summarized in this review. Cannabinoid CB receptors are widely expressed throughout the nociceptive system. Their activation by endogenous or exogenous cannabinoids modulates the release of neurotransmitters. This is reflected in antinociceptive effects of cannabinoids in preclinical models of inflammatory, cancer and neuropathic pain, and by nociceptive hypersensitivity of cannabinoid receptor-deficient mice. Cannabis-based medications available for humans mainly comprise Δ -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD) and nabilone. During the last 10 years, six controlled studies assessing analgesic effects of cannabinoid-based drugs in human experimental settings were reported. An effect on nociceptive processing could be translated to the human setting in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies that pointed at a reduced connectivity within the pain matrix of the brain. However, cannabinoid-based drugs heterogeneously influenced the perception of experimentally induced pain including a reduction in only the affective but not the sensory perception of pain, only moderate analgesic effects, or occasional hyperalgesic effects. This extends to the clinical setting. While controlled studies showed a lack of robust analgesic effects, cannabis was nearly always associated with analgesia in open-label or retrospective reports, possibly indicating an effect on well-being or mood, rather than on sensory pain. Thus, while preclinical evidence supports cannabinoid-based analgesics, human evidence presently provides only reluctant support for a broad clinical use of cannabinoid-based medications in pain therapy.
Chronic Pain Treatment With Cannabidiol in Kidney Transplant Patients in Uruguay
Cuñetti L, Manzo L, Peyraube R, Arnaiz J, Curi L and Orihuela S
Chronic pain is a major therapeutic problem in kidney transplant patients owing to nephrotoxicity associated with nonsteroidal antiiflammatory drugs. Benefits in chronic pain treatment with cannabidiol (CBD) have been reported. This study assesses the effect, safety, and possible drug interactions in kidney transplant patients treated with CBD for chronic pain.
Cannabis-based medicines for chronic neuropathic pain in adults
Mücke M, Phillips T, Radbruch L, Petzke F and Häuser W
This review is one of a series on drugs used to treat chronic neuropathic pain. Estimates of the population prevalence of chronic pain with neuropathic components range between 6% and 10%. Current pharmacological treatment options for neuropathic pain afford substantial benefit for only a few people, often with adverse effects that outweigh the benefits. There is a need to explore other treatment options, with different mechanisms of action for treatment of conditions with chronic neuropathic pain. Cannabis has been used for millennia to reduce pain. Herbal cannabis is currently strongly promoted by some patients and their advocates to treat any type of chronic pain.
Practical considerations in medical cannabis administration and dosing
MacCallum CA and Russo EB
Cannabis has been employed medicinally throughout history, but its recent legal prohibition, biochemical complexity and variability, quality control issues, previous dearth of appropriately powered randomised controlled trials, and lack of pertinent education have conspired to leave clinicians in the dark as to how to advise patients pursuing such treatment. With the advent of pharmaceutical cannabis-based medicines (Sativex/nabiximols and Epidiolex), and liberalisation of access in certain nations, this ignorance of cannabis pharmacology and therapeutics has become untenable. In this article, the authors endeavour to present concise data on cannabis pharmacology related to tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD) et al., methods of administration (smoking, vaporisation, oral), and dosing recommendations. Adverse events of cannabis medicine pertain primarily to THC, whose total daily dose-equivalent should generally be limited to 30mg/day or less, preferably in conjunction with CBD, to avoid psychoactive sequelae and development of tolerance. CBD, in contrast to THC, is less potent, and may require much higher doses for its adjunctive benefits on pain, inflammation, and attenuation of THC-associated anxiety and tachycardia. Dose initiation should commence at modest levels, and titration of any cannabis preparation should be undertaken slowly over a period of as much as two weeks. Suggestions are offered on cannabis-drug interactions, patient monitoring, and standards of care, while special cases for cannabis therapeutics are addressed: epilepsy, cancer palliation and primary treatment, chronic pain, use in the elderly, Parkinson disease, paediatrics, with concomitant opioids, and in relation to driving and hazardous activities.
The Use of Cannabis and Cannabinoids in Treating Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis: a Systematic Review of Reviews
Nielsen S, Germanos R, Weier M, Pollard J, Degenhardt L, Hall W, Buckley N and Farrell M
Pharmaceutical cannabinoids such as nabiximols, nabilone and dronabinol, and plant-based cannabinoids have been investigated for their therapeutic potential in treating multiple sclerosis (MS) symptoms. This review of reviews aimed to synthesise findings from high quality systematic reviews that examined the safety and effectiveness of cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis. We examined the outcomes of disability and disability progression, pain, spasticity, bladder function, tremor/ataxia, quality of life and adverse effects.
Evidence for the use of "medical marijuana" in psychiatric and neurologic disorders
Noel C
Cannabis is listed as a Schedule I substance under the Controlled Substances Act of 1970, meaning the US federal government defines it as an illegal drug that has high potential for abuse and no established medical use; however, half of the states in the nation have enacted "medical marijuana" (MM) laws. Clinicians must be aware of the evidence for and against the use of MM in their patients who may consider using this substance.
Cannabidiol to Improve Mobility in People with Multiple Sclerosis
Rudroff T and Sosnoff J
Aplicaciones terapéuticas por acción de los cannabinoides
Plancarte-Sánchez R, Mansilla-Olivares A, De Los Reyes-Pacheco VA and Meneses-González F
The interest on cannabinoids became evident between the 1940 and 1950 decades. Although the active substance of the plant was not known, a series of compounds with cannabinomimetic activity were synthesized, which were investigated in animals and clinically. The most widely tested was Δ6a, 10a-THC hexyl. Δ6a, 10a-THC dimethylheptyl (DMHP) antiepileptic effects were studied in several children, with positive results being obtained in some cases. DMHP differs from sinhexyl in that its side chain is DMHP instead of n-hexyl. The first cannabinoid isolated from Cannabis sativa was cannabinol, although its structure was correctly characterized several years later. Cannabidiol was isolated some years later and was subsequently characterized by Mechoulam and Shvo. In 2013, the National Academy of Medicine and the Faculty of Medicine of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, through the Seminar of Studies on Entirety, decided to carry out a systematic review on a subject that is both complex and controversial: the relationship between marijuana and health. In recent years, studies have been conducted with cannabis in several diseases: controlled clinical trials on spasticity in multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury, chronic, essentially neuropathic, pain, movement disorders (Gilles de Latourette, dystonia, levodopa dyskinesia), asthma and glaucoma, as well as non-controlled clinical trials on Alzheimer's disease, neuroprotection, intractable hiccups, epilepsy, alcohol and opioid dependence and inflammatory processes.
Pharmacotherapeutic considerations for use of cannabinoids to relieve pain in patients with malignant diseases
Darkovska-Serafimovska M, Serafimovska T, Arsova-Sarafinovska Z, Stefanoski S, Keskovski Z and Balkanov T
The aim of this review was to assess the efficacy of cannabis preparations for relieving pain in patients with malignant diseases, through a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which were predominantly double-blind trials that compared cannabis preparation to a placebo.
A Cross-Sectional Study of Cannabidiol Users
Corroon J and Phillips JA
Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that cannabidiol (CBD) found in Cannabis spp. has broad therapeutic value. CBD products can currently be purchased online, over the counter and at Cannabis-specific dispensaries throughout most of the country, despite the fact that CBD is generally deemed a Schedule I controlled substance by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration and renounced as a dietary supplement ingredient by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Consumer demand for CBD is high and growing, but few studies have examined the reasons for increasing CBD use. A self-selected convenience sample (n = 2409) was recruited via an online survey designed to characterize whom, how, and why individuals are currently using CBD. The anonymous questionnaire was accessed from October 25, 2017 to January 25, 2018. Participants were recruited through social media. Almost 62% of CBD users reported using CBD to treat a medical condition. The top three medical conditions were pain, anxiety, and depression. Almost 36% of respondents reported that CBD treats their medical condition(s) "very well by itself," while only 4.3% reported "not very well." One out of every three users reported a nonserious adverse effect. The odds of using CBD to treat a medical condition were 1.44 (95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.79) times greater among nonregular users of Cannabis than among regular users. Consumers are using CBD as a specific therapy for multiple diverse medical conditions-particularly pain, anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders. These data provide a compelling rationale for further research to better understand the therapeutic potential of CBD.
Music-Enhanced Analgesia and Antiseizure Activities in Animal Models of Pain and Epilepsy: Toward Preclinical Studies Supporting Development of Digital Therapeutics and Their Combinations With Pharmaceutical Drugs
Metcalf CS, Huntsman M, Garcia G, Kochanski AK, Chikinda M, Watanabe E, Underwood T, Vanegas F, Smith MD, White HS and Bulaj G
Digital therapeutics (software as a medical device) and mobile health (mHealth) technologies offer a means to deliver behavioral, psychosocial, disease self-management and music-based interventions to improve therapy outcomes for chronic diseases, including pain and epilepsy. To explore new translational opportunities in developing digital therapeutics for neurological disorders, and their integration with pharmacotherapies, we examined analgesic and antiseizure effects of specific musical compositions in mouse models of pain and epilepsy. The music playlist was created based on the modular progression of Mozart compositions for which reduction of seizures and epileptiform discharges were previously reported in people with epilepsy. Our results indicated that music-treated mice exhibited significant analgesia and reduction of paw edema in the carrageenan model of inflammatory pain. Among analgesic drugs tested (ibuprofen, cannabidiol (CBD), levetiracetam, and the galanin analog NAX 5055), music intervention significantly decreased paw withdrawal latency difference in ibuprofen-treated mice and reduced paw edema in combination with CBD or NAX 5055. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first animal study on music-enhanced antinociceptive activity of analgesic drugs. In the plantar incision model of surgical pain, music-pretreated mice had significant reduction of mechanical allodynia. In the corneal kindling model of epilepsy, the cumulative seizure burden following kindling acquisition was lower in animals exposed to music. The music-treated group also exhibited significantly improved survival, warranting further research on music interventions for preventing Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP). We propose a working model of how musical elements such as rhythm, sequences, phrases and punctuation found in K.448 and K.545 may exert responses via parasympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Based on our findings, we discuss: (1) how enriched environment (EE) can serve as a preclinical surrogate for testing combinations of non-pharmacological modalities and drugs for the treatment of pain and other chronic diseases, and (2) a new paradigm for preclinical and clinical development of therapies leading to drug-device combination products for neurological disorders, depression and cancer. In summary, our present results encourage translational research on integrating non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions for pain and epilepsy using digital therapeutics.
US Veterinarians' Knowledge, Experience, and Perception Regarding the Use of Cannabidiol for Canine Medical Conditions
Kogan L, Schoenfeld-Tacher R, Hellyer P and Rishniw M
Due to the myriad of laws concerning cannabis, there is little empirical research regarding the veterinary use of cannabidiol (CBD). This study used the Veterinary Information Network (VIN) to gauge US veterinarians' knowledge level, views and experiences related to the use of in the medical treatment of dogs. Participants ( = 2130) completed an anonymous, online survey. Results were analyzed based on legal status of recreational marijuana in the participants' state of practice, and year of graduation from veterinary school. Participants felt comfortable in their knowledge of the differences between Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and marijuana, as well as the toxic effects of marijuana in dogs. Most veterinarians (61.5%) felt comfortable discussing the use of CBD with their colleagues, but only 45.5% felt comfortable discussing this topic with clients. No differences were found based on state of practice, but recent graduates were less comfortable discussing the topic. Veterinarians and clients in states with legalized recreational marijuana were more likely to talk about the use of CBD products to treat canine ailments than those in other states. Overall, CBD was most frequently discussed as a potential treatment for pain management, anxiety and seizures. Veterinarians practicing in states with legalized recreational marijuana were more likely to advise their clients and recommend the use of CBD, while there was no difference in the likelihood of prescribing CBD products. Recent veterinary graduates were less likely to recommend or prescribe CBD. The most commonly used CBD formulations were oil/extract and edibles. These were most helpful in providing analgesia for chronic and acute pain, relieving anxiety and decreasing seizure frequency/severity. The most commonly reported side-effect was sedation. Participants felt their state veterinary associations and veterinary boards did not provide sufficient guidance for them to practice within applicable laws. Recent graduates and those practicing in states with legalized recreational marijuana were more likely to agree that research regarding the use of CBD in dogs is needed. These same groups also felt that marijuana and CBD should not remain classified as Schedule I drugs. Most participants agreed that both marijuana and CBD products offer benefits for humans and expressed support for use of CBD products for animals.
L. and Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoids: Their Chemistry and Role against Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Cancer
Pellati F, Borgonetti V, Brighenti V, Biagi M, Benvenuti S and Corsi L
In the last decades, a lot of attention has been paid to the compounds present in medicinal L., such as Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), and their effects on inflammation and cancer-related pain. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) currently recognizes medicinal as an effective treatment for providing relief in a number of symptoms associated with cancer, including pain, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, and anxiety. Several studies have described CBD as a multitarget molecule, acting as an adaptogen, and as a modulator, in different ways, depending on the type and location of disequilibrium both in the brain and in the body, mainly interacting with specific receptor proteins CB and CB. CBD is present in both medicinal and fibre-type plants, but, unlike Δ-THC, it is completely nonpsychoactive. Fibre-type (hemp) differs from medicinal , since it contains only few levels of Δ-THC and high levels of CBD and related nonpsychoactive compounds. In recent years, a number of preclinical researches have been focused on the role of CBD as an anticancer molecule, suggesting CBD (and CBD-like molecules present in the hemp extract) as a possible candidate for future clinical trials. CBD has been found to possess antioxidant activity in many studies, thus suggesting a possible role in the prevention of both neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. In animal models, CBD has been shown to inhibit the progression of several cancer types. Moreover, it has been found that coadministration of CBD and Δ-THC, followed by radiation therapy, causes an increase of autophagy and apoptosis in cancer cells. In addition, CBD is able to inhibit cell proliferation and to increase apoptosis in different types of cancer models. These activities seem to involve also alternative pathways, such as the interactions with TRPV and GRP55 receptor complexes. Moreover, the finding that the acidic precursor of CBD (cannabidiolic acid, CBDA) is able to inhibit the migration of breast cancer cells and to downregulate the proto-oncogene c-fos and the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) highlights the possibility that CBDA might act on a common pathway of inflammation and cancer mechanisms, which might be responsible for its anticancer activity. In the light of all these findings, in this review we explore the effects and the molecular mechanisms of CBD on inflammation and cancer processes, highlighting also the role of minor cannabinoids and noncannabinoids constituents of Δ-THC deprived hemp.
Cannabis Therapeutics and the Future of Neurology
Russo EB
Neurological therapeutics have been hampered by its inability to advance beyond symptomatic treatment of neurodegenerative disorders into the realm of actual palliation, arrest or reversal of the attendant pathological processes. While cannabis-based medicines have demonstrated safety, efficacy and consistency sufficient for regulatory approval in spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS), and in Dravet and Lennox-Gastaut Syndromes (LGS), many therapeutic challenges remain. This review will examine the intriguing promise that recent discoveries regarding cannabis-based medicines offer to neurological therapeutics by incorporating the neutral phytocannabinoids tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), their acidic precursors, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), and cannabis terpenoids in the putative treatment of five syndromes, currently labeled recalcitrant to therapeutic success, and wherein improved pharmacological intervention is required: intractable epilepsy, brain tumors, Parkinson disease (PD), Alzheimer disease (AD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI)/chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Current basic science and clinical investigations support the safety and efficacy of such interventions in treatment of these currently intractable conditions, that in some cases share pathological processes, and the plausibility of interventions that harness endocannabinoid mechanisms, whether mediated via direct activity on CB and CB (tetrahydrocannabinol, THC, caryophyllene), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ; THCA), 5-HT (CBD, CBDA) or even nutritional approaches utilizing prebiotics and probiotics. The inherent polypharmaceutical properties of cannabis botanicals offer distinct advantages over the current single-target pharmaceutical model and portend to revolutionize neurological treatment into a new reality of effective interventional and even preventative treatment.
Quantification of Eight Cannabinoids Including Cannabidiol in Human Urine Via Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Scheidweiler KB and Barnes AJ
Medical and recreational cannabis legalization has highlighted the importance of being able to identify recent cannabis use and impairment. Monitoring minor plant cannabinoids has been proposed to assist in identifying recent cannabis use. Additionally, cannabidiol (CBD) has been proposed for epilepsy, pain, inflammatory disorder, anxiety, and addiction treatment; therefore, monitoring CBD is of increasing clinical importance. However, few methods exist capable of monitoring extensive panels of traditional cannabinoid analytes and minor cannabinoids (including CBD). This chapter details a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method capable of measuring Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC, 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC, cannabinol, cannabigerol, tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), and its metabolite, 11-nor-9-carboxy-THCV, in urine.
Cannabinoids and spinal cord stimulation for the treatment of failed back surgery syndrome refractory pain
Mondello E, Quattrone D, Cardia L, Bova G, Mallamace R, Barbagallo AA, Mondello C, Mannucci C, Di Pietro M, Arcoraci V and Calapai G
This study aimed to evaluate pain and its symptoms in patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) refractory to other therapies, treated with a combination of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), in association with spinal cord stimulation (SCS).
Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs
Gamble LJ, Boesch JM, Frye CW, Schwark WS, Mann S, Wolfe L, Brown H, Berthelsen ES and Wakshlag JJ
The objectives of this study were to determine basic oral pharmacokinetics, and assess safety and analgesic efficacy of a cannabidiol (CBD) based oil in dogs with osteoarthritis (OA). Single-dose pharmacokinetics was performed using two different doses of CBD enriched (2 and 8 mg/kg) oil. Thereafter, a randomized placebo-controlled, veterinarian, and owner blinded, cross-over study was conducted. Dogs received each of two treatments: CBD oil (2 mg/kg) or placebo oil every 12 h. Each treatment lasted for 4 weeks with a 2-week washout period. Baseline veterinary assessment and owner questionnaires were completed before initiating each treatment and at weeks 2 and 4. Hematology, serum chemistry and physical examinations were performed at each visit. A mixed model analysis, analyzing the change from enrollment baseline for all other time points was utilized for all variables of interest, with a ≤ 0.05 defined as significant. Pharmacokinetics revealed an elimination half-life of 4.2 h at both doses and no observable side effects. Clinically, canine brief pain inventory and Hudson activity scores showed a significant decrease in pain and increase in activity ( < 0.01) with CBD oil. Veterinary assessment showed decreased pain during CBD treatment ( < 0.02). No side effects were reported by owners, however, serum chemistry showed an increase in alkaline phosphatase during CBD treatment ( < 0.01). This pharmacokinetic and clinical study suggests that 2 mg/kg of CBD twice daily can help increase comfort and activity in dogs with OA.
The Cannabinoids ΔTHC, CBD, and HU-308 Act via Distinct Receptors to Reduce Corneal Pain and Inflammation
Thapa D, Cairns EA, Szczesniak AM, Toguri JT, Caldwell MD and Kelly MEM
Corneal injury can result in dysfunction of corneal nociceptive signaling and corneal sensitization. Activation of the endocannabinoid system has been reported to be analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The purpose of this research was to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of cannabinoids with reported actions at cannabinoid 1 (CBR) and cannabinoid 2 (CBR) receptors and/or noncannabinoid receptors in an experimental model of corneal hyperalgesia. Corneal hyperalgesia (increased pain response) was generated using chemical cauterization of the corneal epithelium in wild-type (WT) and CBR knockout (CBR) mice. Cauterized eyes were treated topically with the phytocannabinoids Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (ΔTHC) or cannabidiol (CBD), or the CBD derivative HU-308, in the presence or absence of the CBR antagonist AM251 (2.0 mg/kg i.p.), or the 5-HT receptor antagonist WAY100635 (1 mg/kg i.p.). Behavioral pain responses to a topical capsaicin challenge at 6 h postinjury were quantified from video recordings. Mice were euthanized at 6 and 12 h postcorneal injury for immunohistochemical analysis to quantify corneal neutrophil infiltration. Corneal cauterization resulted in hyperalgesia to capsaicin at 6 h postinjury compared to sham control eyes. Neutrophil infiltration, indicative of inflammation, was apparent at 6 and 12 h postinjury in WT mice. Application of ΔTHC, CBD, and HU-308 reduced the pain score and neutrophil infiltration in WT mice. The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory actions of ΔTHC, but not CBD, were blocked by the CBR antagonist AM251, but were still apparent, for both cannabinoids, in CBR mice. However, the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory actions of HU-308 were absent in the CBR mice. The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of CBD were blocked by the 5-HT antagonist WAY100635. Topical cannabinoids reduce corneal hyperalgesia and inflammation. The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of ΔTHC are mediated primarily via CBR, whereas that of the cannabinoids CBD and HU-308, involve activation of 5-HT receptors and CBRs, respectively. Cannabinoids could be a novel clinical therapy for corneal pain and inflammation resulting from ocular surface injury.
Review of the neurological benefits of phytocannabinoids
Maroon J and Bost J
Numerous physical, psychological, and emotional benefits have been attributed to marijuana since its first reported use in 2,600 BC in a Chinese pharmacopoeia. The phytocannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD), and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) are the most studied extracts from subspecies hemp and marijuana. CBD and Δ9-THC interact uniquely with the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Through direct and indirect actions, intrinsic endocannabinoids and plant-based phytocannabinoids modulate and influence a variety of physiological systems influenced by the ECS.
Pharmacology of Medical Cannabis
Amin MR and Ali DW
The Cannabis plant has been used for many of years as a medicinal agent in the relief of pain and seizures. It contains approximately 540 natural compounds including more than 100 that have been identified as phytocannabinoids due to their shared chemical structure. The predominant psychotropic component is Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-THC), while the major non-psychoactive ingredient is cannabidiol (CBD). These compounds have been shown to be partial agonists or antagonists at the prototypical cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. The therapeutic actions of Δ-THC and CBD include an ability to act as analgesics, anti-emetics, anti-inflammatory agents, anti-seizure compounds and as protective agents in neurodegeneration. However, there is a lack of well-controlled, double blind, randomized clinical trials to provide clarity on the efficacy of either Δ-THC or CBD as therapeutics. Moreover, the safety concerns regarding the unwanted side effects of Δ-THC as a psychoactive agent preclude its widespread use in the clinic. The legalization of cannabis for medicinal purposes and for recreational use in some regions will allow for much needed research on the pharmacokinetics and pharmocology of medical cannabis. This brief review focuses on the use of cannabis as a medicinal agent in the treatment of pain, epilepsy and neurodegenerative diseases. Despite the paucity of information, attention is paid to the mechanisms by which medical cannabis may act to relieve pain and seizures.
Oral Cannabidiol Prevents Allodynia and Neurological Dysfunctions in a Mouse Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
Belardo C, Iannotta M, Boccella S, Rubino RC, Ricciardi F, Infantino R, Pieretti G, Stella L, Paino S, Marabese I, Maisto R, Luongo L, Maione S and Guida F
Neurological dysfunctions are the most impactful and persistent consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Indeed, previous reports suggest that an association between TBI and chronic pain syndromes, as well anxio-depressive behaviors, tends to be more common in patients with mild forms of TBI. At present, no effective treatment options are available for these symptoms. In the present study, we used a weight drop mild TBI mouse model to investigate the effect of a commercially available 10% Cannabidiol (CBD) oil on both the sensorial and neuropsychiatric dysfunctions associated with mild TBI through behavioral and biomolecular approaches. TBI mice developed chronic pain associated with anxious and aggressive behavior, followed by a late depressive-like behavior and impaired social interaction. Such behaviors were related with specific changes in neurotransmitters release at cortical levels. CBD oral treatment restored the behavioral alterations and partially normalized the cortical biochemical changes. In conclusion, our data show some of the brain modifications probably responsible for the behavioral phenotype associated with TBI and suggest the CBD as a pharmacological tool to improve neurological dysfunctions caused by the trauma.
Cannabinoid Ligands Targeting TRP Channels
Muller C, Morales P and Reggio PH
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a group of membrane proteins involved in the transduction of a plethora of chemical and physical stimuli. These channels modulate ion entry, mediating a variety of neural signaling processes implicated in the sensation of temperature, pressure, and pH, as well as smell, taste, vision, and pain perception. Many diseases involve TRP channel dysfunction, including neuropathic pain, inflammation, and respiratory disorders. In the pursuit of new treatments for these disorders, it was discovered that cannabinoids can modulate a certain subset of TRP channels. The TRP vanilloid (TRPV), TRP ankyrin (TRPA), and TRP melastatin (TRPM) subfamilies were all found to contain channels that can be modulated by several endogenous, phytogenic, and synthetic cannabinoids. To date, six TRP channels from the three subfamilies mentioned above have been reported to mediate cannabinoid activity: TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPA1, and TRPM8. The increasing data regarding cannabinoid interactions with these receptors has prompted some researchers to consider these TRP channels to be "ionotropic cannabinoid receptors." Although CB1 and CB2 are considered to be the canonical cannabinoid receptors, there is significant overlap between cannabinoids and ligands of TRP receptors. The first endogenous agonist of TRPV1 to be discovered was the endocannabinoid, anandamide (AEA). Similarly, arachidonyl dopamine (NADA) and AEA were the first endogenous TRPM8 antagonists discovered. Additionally, Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-THC), the most abundant psychotropic compound in cannabis, acts most potently at TRPV2, moderately modulates TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPA1, and TRPM8, though Δ-THC is not reported to modulate TRPV1. Moreover, TRP receptors may modulate effects of synthetic cannabinoids used in research. One common research tool is WIN55,212-2, a CB1 agonist that also exerts analgesic effects by desensitizing TRPA1 and TRPV1. In this review article, we aim to provide an overview and classification of the cannabinoid ligands that have been reported to modulate TRP channels and their therapeutic potential.
Effectiveness and tolerability of THC:CBD oromucosal spray as add-on measure in patients with severe chronic pain: analysis of 12-week open-label real-world data provided by the German Pain e-Registry
Ueberall MA, Essner U and Mueller-Schwefe GH
To evaluate effectiveness, tolerability and safety of an oromucosal spray containing Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), as add-on treatment in patients with severe chronic pain (SCP). Exploratory analysis of anonymized 12-week routine/open-label data provided by the German Pain e-Registry (GPR) on adult SCP patients treated with THC:CBD oromucosal spray in 2017. Among those 30.228 cases documented in the GPR in 2017, 800 (2.6%; 57% female, mean ± SD age: 46.3±9.7 years) received a treatment with THC:CBD. All patients fulfilled the legislative preconditions for a treatment with cannabis as medicine as defined by the German Act Amending Narcotics and Other Regulations. THC:CBD-treatment was followed by an aggregated nine-factor symptom relief (ASR-9) improvement at end of week 12 vs baseline of 39.0±26.5% (95%-CI: 36.9-41.1, median: 42, range -41 to 85). A full ASR-9 response (ie, a 50%-improvement in all 9 factors) was found for 123 patients (15.4%), while 488 patients (56.0%) presented with an ≥50% improvement in at least 5 of 9 ASR factors. With a 54.9±17.2% (median: 56%, range: -6 to 85) improvement was significantly superior in the neuropathic pain subgroup (n=497, 62.1%) vs those with mixed (n=249, 31.1%; ASR-9: 18.2±12.0, median: 19, range: -12 to 42%) or nociceptive pain (n=54, 6.8%; ASR-9: -11.9±10.5, median: -11, range: -41% to 12%; <0.001 for each). 159 patients (19.9%) reported at least one of 206 TEAEs, most of them of mild intensity (n=81.6%). Most frequently reported TEAEs were increased appetite (n=50, 6.3%) and dysgeusia (n=23, 2.9%). TEAE-related discontinuations were reported for 32 patients (4.0%). 113 (14.1%) patients discontinued due to inadequate pain relief, most of them with nociceptive pain (n=40, 74.1%), least with neuropathic pain (n=1, 0.2%; <0.001). THC:CBD oromucosal spray proved to be an effective and well-tolerated add-on treatment for patients with elsewhere refractory chronic pain - especially of neuropathic origin.
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