SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS
Behavioral and pharmacological effects of cannabidiol (CBD) and the CBD analogue KLS-13019 in mouse models of pain and reinforcement
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-euphorigenic component of Cannabis sativa which prevents the development of paclitaxel-induced mechanical sensitivity in a mouse model of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). We recently reported that the CBD structural analogue KLS-13019 shows efficacy in an in vitro model of CIPN. The goal of the present study was to characterize the behavioral pharmacological effects of KLS-13019 in comparison to CBD and morphine in mouse models of CIPN, nociceptive pain, and reinforcement.
Anti-seizure medications for Lennox-Gastaut syndrome
Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is an age-specific epilepsy syndrome characterised by multiple seizure types, including drop seizures. LGS has a characteristic electroencephalogram, an onset before age eight years and an association with drug resistance. This is an updated version of the Cochrane Review published in 2013.
Mucoadhesive nanostructured lipid carriers as a cannabidiol nasal delivery system for the treatment of neuropathic pain
The therapeutic potential of cannabidiol (CBD) has been explored to treat several pathologies, including those in which pain is prevalent. However, the oral bioavailability of CBD is low owing to its high lipophilicity and extensive first-pass metabolism. Considering the ability of the nasal route to prevent liver metabolism and increase brain bioavailability, we developed nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for the nasal administration of CBD. We prepared particles with a positively charged surface, employing stearic acid, oleic acid, Span 20, and cetylpyridinium chloride to obtain mucoadhesive formulations. Characterisation of the CBD-NLC dispersions showed uniform nano-sized particles with diameters smaller than 200 nm, and high drug encapsulation. The mucoadhesion of cationic particles has been related to interactions with negatively charged mucin. Next, we added in-situ gelling polymers to the CBD-NLC dispersion to obtain a CBD-NLC-gel. A thermo-reversible in-situ forming gel was prepared by the addition of Pluronics. CBD-NLC-gel was characterised by its gelation temperature, rheological behaviour, and mucoadhesion. Both formulations, CBD-NLC and CBD-NLC-gel, showed high mucoadhesion, as assessed by the flow-through method and similar in vitro drug release profiles. The in vivo evaluation showed that CBD-NLC dispersion (without gel), administered intranasally, produced a more significant and lasting antinociceptive effect in animals with neuropathic pain than the oral or nasal administration of CBD solution. However, the nasal administration of CBD-NLC-gel did not lessen mechanical allodynia. These findings demonstrate that in-situ gelling hydrogels are not suitable vehicles for highly lipophilic drugs such as CBD, while cationic CBD-NLC dispersions are promising formulations for the nasal administration of CBD.
Lack of efficacy of cannabidiol for relieving back pain: time to re-set expectations?
The CANBACK trial: a randomised, controlled clinical trial of oral cannabidiol for people presenting to the emergency department with acute low back pain
To assess the analgesic efficacy and safety of single-dose oral cannabidiol (CBD) as an adjunct to standard care for patients presenting to an emergency department with acute low back pain.
Inhaled Cannabis Suppresses Chemotherapy-Induced Neuropathic Nociception by Decoupling the Raphe Nucleus: A Functional Imaging Study in Rats
Efficacy of inhaled cannabis for treating pain is controversial. Effective treatment for chemotherapy-induced neuropathy represents an unmet medical need. We hypothesized that cannabis reduces neuropathic pain by reducing functional coupling in the raphe nuclei.
Cannabis-based medicines and pain: a review of potential synergistic and entourage effects
The recent legalization of medicinal cannabis in several jurisdictions has spurred the development of therapeutic formulations for chronic pain. Unlike pure delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), full-spectrum products contain naturally occurring cannabinoids and have been reported to show improved efficacy or tolerability, attributed to synergy between cannabinoids and other components in the cannabis plant. Although 'synergy' indicates that two or more active compounds may produce an additive or combined effect greater than their individual analgesic effect, potentiation of the biological effect of a compound by related but inactive compounds, in combination, was termed the 'entourage effect'. Here, we review current evidence for potential synergistic and entourage effects of cannabinoids in pain relief. However, definitive clinical trials and functional studies are still required.
Homegrown perceptions about the medical use and potential abuse of CBD and THC
Despite heightened consumer interest in cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), little is known about public perceptions regarding their medical use and potential for abuse, particularly relative to commonly used medications. Using data from 1,050 U.S. adult respondents from a national survey conducted in 2019, this study found that more than half of respondents perceived CBD, THC, hemp, and marijuana as having medical use. They also perceived the potential for abuse of CBD, THC, hemp, and marijuana as significantly less than potential for abuse of commonly prescribed anti-anxiety and pain medications. At the nexus of medical use and potential abuse, public perceptions classified CBD and hemp as similar to over-the-counter pain relief medications such as Advil and Tylenol and did not classify marijuana as a Schedule I substance. Slightly more than 20% of respondents reported having consumed CBD and/or THC. CBD was consumed more than THC to reduce pain while THC was consumed more than CBD for recreation. There were no differences in the types of medications they were replacing with CBD and THC.
Cannabidiol (CBD) and other drug use among young adults who use cannabis in Los Angeles
Cannabidiol (CBD) is purportedly a promising therapeutic agent to provide relief for a variety of medical conditions with mild or no psychoactive effects. However, little is known about young adults who use cannabis and CBD-dominant products, and associations between CBD use and other drug use.
Endocannabinoid System as Therapeutic Target of PTSD: A Systematic Review
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a complex disorder involving dysregulation of stress-related hormones and neurotransmitter systems. Research focused on the endocannabinoid system (eCBS) for anxiety and stress regulation, cognitive and emotional responses modulation and aversive memories extinction, leading to the hypothesis that it could represent a possible alternative treatment target for PTSD. In this systematic review, we summarize evidence about the efficacy and safety of medicinal cannabidiol (CBD), Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-THC), and nabilone in PTSD treatment. The PRISMA statement guidelines were followed. A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science by two independent researchers, who also performed data extraction and quality assessment. Among the initial 495 papers, 234 were screened for eligibility and 10 were included. Studies suggested that different medicinal cannabinoids at distinct doses and formulations could represent promising treatment strategies for the improvement of overall PTSD symptomatology as well as specific symptom domains (e.g., sleep disorders, arousal disturbances, suicidal thoughts), also influencing quality of life, pain and social impact. Although there is a robust rationale for treatment with drugs that target the eCBS and the results are promising, further studies are needed to investigate the safety and efficacy profile of their prolonged use.
Evaluation of the Effect of Cannabidiol on Naturally Occurring Osteoarthritis-Associated Pain: A Pilot Study in Dogs
The objective of this study was to provide preliminary data describing the safety and effect of cannabidiol (CBD) for symptom relief of canine osteoarthritis-associated pain in a clinical setting using objective outcome measures. Twenty-three client-owned dogs with naturally occurring osteoarthritis of appendicular joints completed this prospective, double-blinded, crossover, placebo-controlled study. Baseline data were acquired for 4 wk, followed by random allocation to either placebo or CBD treatment for 6 wk, followed by 6 wk with the opposite treatment. Outcome measures included objective gait analysis, activity counts (via accelerometry) and clinical metrology instruments. There were no differences noted between groups at any time point for any of the recorded outcome measures. Adverse events associated with CBD administration included elevation in liver enzymes (n = 14) and vomiting (n = 2).
Disposition of cannabinoids and their metabolites in serum, oral fluid, sweat patch and urine from healthy individuals treated with pharmaceutical preparations of medical cannabis
Recently, several countries authorized the use of cannabis flowering tops (dried inflorescences) with a standardized amount of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD) and their acidic precursors [Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA)] to treat neurogenic pain. We studied the acute pharmacological effects and disposition of cannabinoids and their metabolites in serum, oral fluid, sweat patch and urine of 13 healthy individuals treated with medical cannabis decoction and oil. Cannabinoids and their metabolites were quantified by ultrahigh performance tandem mass spectrometry. Even if the oil contained a significantly higher amount of THC, the absorption of THC and its metabolites were similar in both herbal preparations. Conversely, whereas oil contained a significantly higher amount of CBD and a lower amount of CBDA, absorption was significantly higher after decoction intake. Only cannabinoids present in both herbal preparations (THC, CBD, THCA-A and CBDA) were found in oral fluid, due to the higher acidity compared with that of serum. THC metabolites urinary excretion was always higher after decoction administration. Decoction induced greater feeling of hunger and drowsiness than oil preparation. Pharmacokinetics of cannabinoids, their precursors and their metabolites in biological fluids of individuals treated with cannabis decoction and oil showed a high interindividual variability. The aqueous preparation was generally better absorbed than the oil, even if it contained a minor amount of THC, THCA-A and CBD.
Application of medical cannabis in unstable angina and coronary artery disease: A case report
First discovered in 1990, the endocannabinoid system (ECS) was initially shown to have an intimate relationship with central areas of the nervous system associated with pain, reward, and motivation. Recently, however, the ECS has been extensively implicated in the cardiovascular system with contractility, heart rate, blood pressure, and vasodilation. Emerging data demonstrate modulation of the ECS plays an essential role in cardio metabolic risk, atherosclerosis, and can even limit damage to cardiomyocytes during ischemic events.
A systematic review and meta-analysis of cannabis-based medicines, cannabinoids and endocannabinoid system modulators tested for antinociceptive effects in animal models of injury-related or pathological persistent pain
We report a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies which assessed the antinociceptive efficacy of cannabinoids, cannabis-based medicines, and endocannabinoid system modulators on pain-associated behavioural outcomes in animal models of pathological or injury-related persistent pain. In April 2019, we systematically searched 3 online databases and used crowd science and machine learning to identify studies for inclusion. We calculated a standardised mean difference (SMD) effect size for each comparison and performed a random effects meta-analysis. We assessed the impact of study design characteristics and reporting of mitigations to reduce the risk of bias. We meta-analysed 374 studies in which 171 interventions were assessed for antinociceptive efficacy in rodent models of pathological or injury-related pain. Most experiments were conducted in male animals (86 %). Antinociceptive efficacy was most frequently measured by attenuation of hypersensitivity to evoked limb withdrawal. Selective CB1, CB2, non-selective cannabinoid receptor agonists (including delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol; THC), and PPAR-alpha agonists (predominantly palmitoylethanolamide; PEA) significantly attenuated pain-associated behaviours in a broad range of inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors, monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) inhibitors and cannabidiol (CBD) significantly attenuated pain-associated behaviours in neuropathic pain models but yielded mixed results in inflammatory pain models. The reporting of criteria to reduce the risk of bias was low, therefore the studies have an unclear risk of bias. The value of future studies could be enhanced by improving the reporting of methodological criteria, the clinical relevance of the models and behavioural assessments. Notwithstanding, the evidence supports the hypothesis of cannabinoid-induced analgesia.
Oral efficacy of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in a mouse neuropathic pain model
The psychoactive and non-psychoactive constituents of cannabis, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), have synergistic analgesic efficacy in animal models of neuropathic pain when injected systemically. However, the relevance of this preclinical synergy to clinical neuropathic pain studies is unclear because many of the latter use oral administration. We therefore examined the oral effectiveness of these phytocannabinoids and their interactions in a mouse chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain. THC produced a dose-dependent reduction in mechanical and cold allodynia, but also induced side-effects with similar potency. CBD also reduced allodynia, albeit with lower potency than THC, but did not produce cannabinoid-like side-effects at any dose tested. Combination THC:CBD produced a dose-dependent reduction in allodynia, however, it displayed little to no synergy. Combination THC:CBD produced substantial, synergistic side-effects which increased with the proportion of CBD. These findings demonstrate that oral THC and CBD, alone and in combination, have analgesic efficacy in an animal neuropathic pain model. Unlike prior systemic injection studies, combination THC:CBD lacks analgesic synergy when delivered orally. Furthermore, both THC and combination THC:CBD display a relatively poor therapeutic window when delivered orally. This suggests that CBD provides a safer, albeit lower efficacy, oral treatment for nerve injury induced neuropathic pain than THC-containing preparations.
Assessment of hemp oil-based cannabidiol use in a community-based pharmacy setting
The Agricultural Improvement Act of 2018 legalized the commercial use of hemp-based products, including cannabidiol (CBD). However, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not currently regulate the commercial sale of hemp oil-based CBD, and there is no FDA-approved indication for its nonprescription formulations despite the growing demand for, and use of, hemp oil-based CBD.
The Effects of Cannabis: Implications for the Surgical Patient
Cannabis use is increasingly prevalent. Cannabinoid receptors regulate pro-inflammatory cytokines, and compounds in marijuana exert diverse physiologic effects. As more patients use cannabis, clinicians should recognize implications of perioperative cannabis use. Although the role of cannabis use in perioperative pain control has been explored, little is known about its effect on perioperative wound healing or on hematologic, pulmonary, and cardiovascular physiology.
Safety and tolerability of nabiximols oromucosal spray: a review of real-world experience in observational studies, registries, and case reports
: Nabiximols oromucosal spray,a cannabis-based medicine containing a balanced ratio of Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, is approved widely as an add-on therapy for symptomatic relief of spasticity in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Most safety data for nabiximols derive from use in MS spasticity, with some data available from the analgesia area.
A validated method for the simultaneous quantification of cannabidiol, Δ -tetrahydrocannabinol, and their metabolites in human plasma and application to plasma samples from an oral cannabidiol open-label trial
Cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are the two best known and most extensively studied phytocannabinoids within Cannabis sativa. An increasing number of preclinical studies and clinical trials have been conducted with one or both compounds, often probing their therapeutic effects in conditions such as paediatric epilepsy, anxiety disorders or chronic pain. Accurate monitoring of THC and CBD and their metabolites is essential for tracking treatment adherence and pharmacokinetics. However, fully validated methods for the comprehensive analysis of major Phase I CBD metabolites are yet to be developed due to a historical lack of commercially available reference material. In the present study, we developed, optimised and validated a method for the simultaneous quantification of CBD, THC and their major Phase I metabolites 6-hydroxy-CBD (6-OH-CBD), 7-hydroxy-CBD (7-OH-CBD), 7-carboxy-CBD (7-COOH-CBD), 11-hydroxy-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC) and 11-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-COOH-THC) as per Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines for bioanalytical method validation. The method is accurate, reproducible, sensitive and can be carried out in high-throughput 96-well formats, ideal for larger scale clinical trials. Deuterated internal standards for each analyte were crucial to account for variable matrix effects between plasma lots. The application of the method to plasma samples, taken from people who had been administered oral CBD as part of an open-label trial of CBD effects in anxiety disorders, demonstrated its immediate utility in ongoing and upcoming clinical trials. The method will prove useful for future studies involving CBD and/or THC and can likely accommodate the inclusion of additional metabolites as analytical reference materials become commercially available.
Antinociceptive effects of minor cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids in Cannabis
Cannabis has been used for centuries for its medicinal properties. Given the dangerous and unpleasant side effects of existing analgesics, the chemical constituents of Cannabis have garnered significant interest for their antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. To date, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) remain the two most widely studied constituents of Cannabis in animals. These studies have led to formulations of THC and CBD for human use; however, chronic pain patients also use different strains of Cannabis (sativa, indica and ruderalis) to alleviate their pain. These strains contain major cannabinoids, such as THC and CBD, but they also contain a wide variety of cannabinoid and noncannabinoid constituents. Although the analgesic effects of Cannabis are attributed to major cannabinoids, evidence indicates other constituents such as minor cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids also produce antinociception against animal models of acute, inflammatory, neuropathic, muscle and orofacial pain. In some cases, these constituents produce antinociception that is equivalent or greater compared to that produced by traditional analgesics. Thus, a better understanding of the extent to which these constituents produce antinociception alone in animals is necessary. The purposes of this review are to (1) introduce the different minor cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids found in Cannabis and (2) discuss evidence of their antinociceptive properties in animals.
Topical Treatments and Their Molecular/Cellular Mechanisms in Patients with Peripheral Neuropathic Pain-Narrative Review
Neuropathic pain in humans results from an injury or disease of the somatosensory nervous system at the peripheral or central level. Despite the considerable progress in pain management methods made to date, peripheral neuropathic pain significantly impacts patients' quality of life, as pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods often fail or induce side effects. Topical treatments are gaining popularity in the management of peripheral neuropathic pain, due to excellent safety profiles and preferences. Moreover, topical treatments applied locally may target the underlying mechanisms of peripheral sensitization and pain. Recent studies showed that peripheral sensitization results from interactions between neuronal and non-neuronal cells, with numerous signaling molecules and molecular/cellular targets involved. This narrative review discusses the molecular/cellular mechanisms of drugs available in topical formulations utilized in clinical practice and their effectiveness in clinical studies in patients with peripheral neuropathic pain. We searched PubMed for papers published from 1 January 1995 to 30 November 2020. The key search phrases for identifying potentially relevant articles were "topical AND pain", "topical AND neuropathic", "topical AND treatment", "topical AND mechanism", "peripheral neuropathic", and "mechanism". The result of our search was 23 randomized controlled trials (RCT), 9 open-label studies, 16 retrospective studies, 20 case (series) reports, 8 systematic reviews, 66 narrative reviews, and 140 experimental studies. The data from preclinical studies revealed that active compounds of topical treatments exert multiple mechanisms of action, directly or indirectly modulating ion channels, receptors, proteins, and enzymes expressed by neuronal and non-neuronal cells, and thus contributing to antinociception. However, which mechanisms and the extent to which the mechanisms contribute to pain relief observed in humans remain unclear. The evidence from RCTs and reviews supports 5% lidocaine patches, 8% capsaicin patches, and botulinum toxin A injections as effective treatments in patients with peripheral neuropathic pain. In turn, single RCTs support evidence of doxepin, funapide, diclofenac, baclofen, clonidine, loperamide, and cannabidiol in neuropathic pain states. Topical administration of phenytoin, ambroxol, and prazosin is supported by observational clinical studies. For topical amitriptyline, menthol, and gabapentin, evidence comes from case reports and case series. For topical ketamine and baclofen, data supporting their effectiveness are provided by both single RCTs and case series. The discussed data from clinical studies and observations support the usefulness of topical treatments in neuropathic pain management. This review may help clinicians in making decisions regarding whether and which topical treatment may be a beneficial option, particularly in frail patients not tolerating systemic pharmacotherapy.
Evaluation of THC-Related Neuropsychiatric Symptoms Among Adults Aged 50 Years and Older: A Systematic Review and Metaregression Analysis
Should You Recommend Cannabinoids for This Patient With Painful Neuropathy? : Grand Rounds Discussion From Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Cannabis includes 140 active cannabinoid compounds, the most important of which are tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol (CBD). Tetrahydrocannabinol is primarily responsible for the intoxicating effects of cannabis; CBD has potential therapeutic effects, including reduction in chronic pain. Recent legislative changes have resulted in the legal availability of cannabinoids in all 50 states, as well as a marked increase in patients' interest in their use. Despite an abundance of data, albeit of varied quality, clinicians may feel poorly prepared to counsel patients seeking advice on the suitability of CBD products for various indications, particularly chronic neuropathic pain. In 2018, on the basis of a systematic review of the literature, a Canadian Evidence Review Group published a guideline with recommendations for clinicians on prescribing cannabinoids in primary care practice. The overall quality of evidence was low to very low. In a meta-analysis of 15 randomized trials of medical cannabis for treating chronic pain, 39% of patients achieved at least a 30% reduction in pain. The corresponding value for placebo-treated patients was 30%; the number needed to treat was 11. More evidence exists for neuropathic pain than for other types of noncancer pain. Here, a general internist with a focus on addiction medicine and an addiction psychiatrist discuss how they would apply the literature to make recommendations for a patient with painful diabetic neuropathy, including counseling on both potential benefits and harms.
Cannabis sativa L. may reduce aggressive behaviour towards humans in shelter dogs
Among the phytocomplex components of Cannabis sativa L., cannabidiol (CBD) has a recognised therapeutic effect on chronic pain. Little is known about the veterinary use of CBD in dogs. Even less is known on the effects of CBD on dog behaviour, especially in shelters. The purpose of this study was to determine if CBD affects stress related behaviour in shelter dogs. The sample consisted of 24 dogs divided into two groups that were created by assigning the dogs alternately: 12 dogs were assigned to the treatment group and 12 to the control group. Extra virgin olive oil, titrated to 5% in CBD was given to treated group; the placebo consisted of olive oil only, dispensed daily for 45 days. Behavioural data were collected using the 'focal animal' sampling method with 'all occurrences' and '1/0' methods for 3 h: before (T), after 15 days (T), after 45 days of treatment (T) and after 15 days from the end of the treatment (T). Treated dogs showed reduced aggressive behaviour toward humans following the treatment (Friedman Test: χ = 13.300; df = 3; N = 12; p = .004; adj. sig. p = 0.027), but the difference in the decrease of aggressive behaviour between the two groups was not significant (Mann-Whitney U test, T-T: Z = - 1.81; N = 24; p = 0.078). Other behaviours indicative of stress, such as displacing activities and stereotypes, did not decrease. Despite some non-significant results, our findings suggest that it is worth doing more research to further investigate the effect of CBD on dog behaviour; this would be certainly valuable because the potential for improving the welfare of dogs in shelters is priceless.
Cannabis: A Toxin-Producing Plant with Potential Therapeutic Uses
For thousands of years, has been utilized as a medicine and for recreational and spiritual purposes. Phytocannabinoids are a family of compounds that are found in the cannabis plant, which is known for its psychotogenic and euphoric effects; the main psychotropic constituent of cannabis is Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC). The pharmacological effects of cannabinoids are a result of interactions between those compounds and cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, located in many parts of the human body. Cannabis is used as a therapeutic agent for treating pain and emesis. Some cannabinoids are clinically applied for treating chronic pain, particularly cancer and multiple sclerosis-associated pain, for appetite stimulation and anti-emesis in HIV/AIDS and cancer patients, and for spasticity treatment in multiple sclerosis and epilepsy patients. Medical cannabis varies from recreational cannabis in the chemical content of THC and cannabidiol (CBD), modes of administration, and safety. Despite the therapeutic effects of cannabis, exposure to high concentrations of THC, the main compound that is responsible for most of the intoxicating effects experienced by users, could lead to psychological events and adverse effects that affect almost all body systems, such as neurological (dizziness, drowsiness, seizures, coma, and others), ophthalmological (mydriasis and conjunctival hyperemia), cardiovascular (tachycardia and arterial hypertension), and gastrointestinal (nausea, vomiting, and thirst), mainly associated with recreational use. Cannabis toxicity in children is more concerning and can cause serious adverse effects such as acute neurological symptoms (stupor), lethargy, seizures, and even coma. More countries are legalizing the commercial production and sale of cannabis for medicinal use, and some for recreational use as well. Liberalization of cannabis laws has led to increased incidence of toxicity, hyperemesis syndrome, lung disease cardiovascular disease, reduced fertility, tolerance, and dependence with chronic prolonged use. This review focuses on the potential therapeutic effects of cannabis and cannabinoids, as well as the acute and chronic toxic effects of cannabis use on various body systems.
Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol Alone and in Combination with Standardized Bioflavonoid Composition
Symptom-alleviating therapies for osteoarthritis (OA) management are inadequate. Long-term application of first-line treatments, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, is limited due to associated side effects. We believe that a combination of traditionally used botanical extracts, which have diverse active components that target multiple inflammatory pathways, may provide a safe and efficacious alternative to address the multifactorial nature of OA. Recently, cannabidiol (CBD), the major nonpsychoactive component of the hemp plant, has gained renewed global attention for its pharmacological actions. It has shown promise in reducing pain and inflammation in preclinical models of arthritis. In this study, widely employed inflammatory and noninflammatory animal pain models, such as the hot plate test, visceral pain model (writhing test), and carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model, were utilized to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of CBD alone and in combination with standardized bioflavonoid compositions. CBD was tested at 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg orally and at 5% topically. Administered alone, CBD produced dose-correlated, statistically significant pain inhibition in all the models. Enhanced performance in pain and inflammation reduction was observed when CBD was orally administered in complex with the bioflavonoid compositions. Data from this study show that for clinically meaningful efficacy against OA, CBD may have to be delivered in higher dosage or formulated with other medicinal plants with similar activities.
Cannabidiol Does Not Impair Anabolic Signaling Following Eccentric Contractions in Rats
Cannabidiol (CBD) has proven clinical benefits in the treatment of seizures, inflammation, and pain. The recent legalization of CBD in many countries has caused increased interest in the drug as an over-the-counter treatment for athletes looking to improve recovery. However, no data on the effects of CBD on the adaptive response to exercise in muscle are available. To address this gap, we eccentrically loaded the tibialis anterior muscle of 14 rats, injected them with a vehicle (n = 7) or 100 mg/kg CBD (n = 7), and measured markers of injury, inflammation, anabolic signaling, and autophagy 18 hr later. Pro-inflammatory signaling through nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) (Ser536) increased with loading in both groups; however, the effect was significantly greater (36%) in the vehicle group (p < .05). Simultaneously, anabolic signaling through ribosomal protein S6 kinase beta-1 (S6K1) (Thr389) increased after eccentric contractions in both groups with no difference between vehicle and CBD (p = .66). The ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation (240/244) increased with stimulation (p < .001) and tended to be higher in the CBD group (p = .09). The ubiquitin-binding protein p62 levels were not modulated by stimulation (p = .6), but they were 46% greater in the CBD compared with the vehicle group (p = .01). Although liver weight did not differ between the groups (p = .99) and levels of proteins associated with stress were similar, we did observe serious side effects in one animal. In conclusion, an acute dose of CBD decreased pro-inflammatory signaling in the tibialis anterior without blunting the anabolic response to exercise in rats. Future research should determine whether these effects translate to improved recovery without altering adaptation in humans.
Medical cannabis for the treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome: a retrospective, open-label case series
The use of cannabis for treating fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) has not been comprehensively investigated. Thus, we have assessed the efficacy and adverse events (AEs) of short- and long-term medical cannabis (MC) treatment for FMS.
Reasons for cannabidiol use: a cross-sectional study of CBD users, focusing on self-perceived stress, anxiety, and sleep problems
Public and medical interest in cannabidiol (CBD) has been rising, and CBD is now available from various sources. Research into the effects of low-dose CBD on outcomes like stress, anxiety, and sleep problems have been scarce, so we conducted an online survey of CBD users to better understand patterns of use, dose, and self-perceived effects of CBD.
Perioperative Cannabis as a Potential Solution for Reducing Opioid and Benzodiazepine Dependence
Cannabis is increasingly being used for medicinal purposes but remains outside Western medical practice. Data on perioperative use and outcomes are scarce. Few surgeons receive training regarding legal endorsement, reported medicinal benefits, and potential risks, making it difficult to advise patients. Guidelines and additional research are needed.
Cannabinoids in Neurologic Illnesses
Marijuana has been used to treat medical disease since well before the 1800s. Recently, increased use of cannabinoids, the chemical components of marijuana, have been seen to treat neurologic illness in children and adults. Unfortunately, data are lacking in treating most neurologic illnesses except in the field of epilepsy and pain from spasticity in multiple sclerosis. Therefore, formal conclusions about the potential efficacy, benefit, and adverse effects for most marijuana based products cannot be made at this time. Further research using gold standard scientific methodology should be performed to help address potential uses and safety for cannabinoids to treat neurologic illnesses.
Clinical Evidence of Magistral Preparations Based on Medicinal Cannabis
Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal plant for millennia; however, studies related to its main components were first conducted in 1960. Subsequently, laboratories have produced new components and structures related to its active biological properties. Countries that have approved the medicinal use of cannabis impose regulations that govern its clinical and scientific use. One means of administering medicinal cannabis is via a magistral preparation that must have a medical prescription and be prepared in an establishment that meets quality standards to ensure the quantities of its main components, such as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Furthermore, suppliers must have a clear indication of its use in the patient before prescription. This review shows the published evidence regarding the clinical use of medicinal cannabis magistral preparations in the management of post-chemotherapy nausea and vomiting, neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis, and anorexia and cachexia in patients with HIV.
Cannabidiol Use for Fibromyalgia: Prevalence of Use and Perceptions of Effectiveness in a Large Online Survey
Cannabidiol (CBD) is widely advertised as helpful for chronic pain management but research is limited. Using a cross-sectional, anonymous survey, we examined patterns of naturalistic CBD use among individuals with fibromyalgia (FM) and other chronic pain conditions. Our objective was to better understand rates of CBD use, reasons for use and discontinuation, communication with healthcare professionals about CBD, and perceptions of CBD effectiveness and safety among people with FM. After excluding incomplete surveys, our study population consisted of N = 2,701 participants with fibromyalgia, primarily in the United States. Overall, 38.1% reported never using CBD, 29.4% reported past CBD use, and 32.4% reported current CBD use. Past-year cannabis use was strongly associated with past or current CBD use. Those using CBD typically did so due to inadequate symptom relief, while those not using CBD typically cited safety concerns as their reason for not using CBD. Two-thirds of participants disclosed CBD use to their physician, although only 33% asked for physician advice on using CBD. Participants used CBD for numerous FM-related symptoms (most commonly pain), and generally reported slight to much improvement across symptom domains. Around half of participants reported side effects, which were typically minor. Our findings are limited by selection bias and our cross-sectional design, which prevents causal associations. In conclusion, CBD use is common among individuals with FM and many individuals using CBD report improvements across numerous FM-related symptoms. Our findings highlight the need for additional rigorous studies to better understand CBD's potential for FM management. PERSPECTIVE: This article indicates that CBD use is common among people with fibromyalgia, and the results suggest that many derive benefit from using CBD across multiple symptoms domains. Clinicians should discuss CBD use with fibromyalgia patients, and future studies are needed to rigorously assess CBD's therapeutic value for fibromyalgia symptoms.
Cannabis and its constituents for cancer: History, biogenesis, chemistry and pharmacological activities
Cannabis has long been used for healing and recreation in several regions of the world. Over 400 bioactive constituents, including more than 100 phytocannabinoids, have been isolated from this plant. The non-psychoactive cannabidiol (CBD) and the psychoactive Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-THC) are the major and widely studied constituents from this plant. Cannabinoids exert their effects through the endocannabinoid system (ECS) that comprises cannabinoid receptors (CB1, CB2), endogenous ligands, and metabolizing enzymes. Several preclinical studies have demonstrated the potential of cannabinoids against leukemia, lymphoma, glioblastoma, and cancers of the breast, colorectum, pancreas, cervix and prostate. Cannabis and its constituents can modulate multiple cancer related pathways such as PKB, AMPK, CAMKK-β, mTOR, PDHK, HIF-1α, and PPAR-γ. Cannabinoids can block cell growth, progression of cell cycle and induce apoptosis selectively in tumour cells. Cannabinoids can also enhance the efficacy of cancer therapeutics. These compounds have been used for the management of anorexia, queasiness, and pain in cancer patients. Cannabinoid based products such as dronabinol, nabilone, nabiximols, and epidyolex are now approved for medical use in cancer patients. Cannabinoids are reported to produce a favourable safety profile. However, psychoactive properties and poor bioavailability limit the use of some cannabinoids. The Academic Institutions across the globe are offering training courses on cannabis. How cannabis and its constituents exert anticancer activities is discussed in this article. We also discuss areas that require attention and more extensive research.
Cannabidiol Interactions with Medications, Illicit Substances, and Alcohol: a Comprehensive Review
Cannabidiol, a non-intoxicating phytocannabinoid, has potential therapeutic effects over a broad range of disorders. Recently, there has been increased interest in CBD, as several studies showed promising anticonvulsant efficacy with few side effects. In 2018, a CBD-based oral solution, Epidiolex®, was approved by the FDA to treat two severe forms of pediatric epilepsy, Dravet syndrome, and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Although only these two syndromes are recognized indications for CBD, it has been consumed in an unregulated fashion for a variety of indications including chronic pain, muscle stiffness, inflammation, anxiety, smoking cessation, and even cancer. While CBD legislation in the USA is confusing due to the differences in state and federal laws, CBD has proliferated in the US market in several forms such as CBD oil or capsules, hemp oil/extract, and also as an ingredient in several dietary supplements, syrups, teas, and creams. With the ever-increasing use of CBD and its widespread availability to the general public, it is important to examine and report on possible drug-drug interactions between CBD and other therapeutic agents as well as addictive substances such as alcohol and tobacco. A detailed literature search for CBD's possible interactions was conducted using online databases. As expected, CBD has been reported to interact with anti-epileptic drugs, antidepressants, opioid analgesics, and THC, but surprisingly, it interacts with several other common medications, e.g. acetaminophen, and substances including alcohol. This review provides a comprehensive list of interacting drugs. The possible mechanisms for these drug-drug interactions are presented in table format. Given the growing popularity of CBD as a medication and the dearth of available information on CBD drug-drug interactions, it is critical to be aware of current drug-drug interactions and it will be important to investigate the impact of CBD upon concomitant medication use in future randomized, controlled trials.
Cannabidiol: pharmacology and therapeutic targets
Cannabidiol (CBD) products lacking regulatory approval are being used to self-treat a myriad of conditions and for their unsubstantiated health benefits. The scientific evidence supporting these claims largely arises not from controlled clinical trials, but from the recognition that CBD has numerous biological targets. Yet, CBD is commonly consumed and often in over-the-counter products that are unapproved and of unknown composition. Epidiolex® is the only product that has undergone rigorous pharmacokinetic assessment and testing in clinical trials; it was approved as a non-scheduled drug by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of intractable childhood-onset seizures. However, studies investigating CBD for other medical conditions are limited in number and often lack the scientific rigor, controls, or sample sizes required to draw clinically meaningful conclusions. Although Epidiolex® is safe for human consumption, recent changes in regulation of commercially available CBD products have resulted in limited quality control and products marketed with unknown CBD bioavailability. Even scientifically rigorous studies have used different sources of CBD and different suspension vehicles for administration, making it difficult to compare results among studies and resolve mixed outcomes.
Cannabinoids in dermatologic surgery
Though known as a medicinal herb for centuries, the recent legalization of cannabinoids across many states has ushered in a new era where cannabinoids have become a popular treatment option among clinicians and patients alike. Cannabinoids have demonstrated efficacy in wound healing, reducing inflammation, ameliorating pain, and have shown potential as an antitumor agent. As a result, cannabinoids have been rapidly woven into the fabric of modern medicine. However, the utility of cannabinoids in dermatologic surgery has not been explored to date. In this article, we review the current literature to discuss the potential impact of cannabinoid use in dermatologic surgery.
The Role of Cannabinoids as Anticancer Agents in Pediatric Oncology
Cannabinoids are a group of chemicals that bind to receptors in the human body and, in turn, modulate the endocannabinoid system (ECS). They can be endogenously produced, synthetic, or derived from the plant . Research over the past several decades has shown that the ECS is a cellular communication network essential to maintain multiple biological functions and the homeostasis of the body. Indeed, cannabinoids have been shown to influence a wide variety of biological effects, including memory, pain, reproduction, bone remodeling or immunity, to name a few. Unsurprisingly, given these broad physiological effects, alterations of the ECS have been found in different diseases, including cancer. In recent years, the medical use of cannabis has been approved in different countries for a variety of human conditions. However, the use of these compounds, specifically as anticancer agents, remains controversial. Studies have shown that cannabinoids do have anticancer activity in different tumor types such as breast cancer, melanoma, lymphoma and adult brain cancer. Specifically, phytocannabinoids Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation of adult cancer cells, as well as modulate angiogenesis and metastasis. Despite increasing evidence that cannabinoids elicit antitumor effects in adult cancers, there is minimal data available on their effects in children or in pediatric cancers despite public and clinical demand for information. Here we describe a comprehensive and critical review of what is known about the effects of cannabinoids on pediatric cancers, highlight current gaps in knowledge and identify the critical issues that need addressing before considering these promising but controversial drugs for use in pediatric oncology.
Oropharyngeal Bleeding Due to Cannabidiol Oil Vape Use
Vaping has become an increasingly popular alternative to smoking in recent years. We present a rare and unusual case of upper airway bleeding caused by inhalation of a cannabidiol (CBD) oil-based vape due to a chemical burn. There are no case reports of this injury in the literature, and we discuss the clinical presentation, diagnosis and our management of this potentially life-threatening injury. A 27-year-old man presented to the accident and emergency department after using a CBD oil vape. After one inhalation of the CBD oil vape, the patient experienced immediate onset pain in the oropharynx, dyspnoea, expectoration of blood and hoarseness. The patient had used a CBD oil vape four hours earlier that evening for the first time, which was procured from an unregulated online source. The patient was referred to the Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) team where the examination of oropharynx identified a posterior pharyngeal bleeding point. Flexible nasal endoscopy was undertaken showing profound erythema and inflammation throughout the oropharynx and posterior pharyngeal wall. The mucous membranes had been detached leaving an exposed bleeding submucosa. The patient was commenced on three cycles of back-to-back adrenaline nebulisers (1:1000 adrenaline in 5ml of 0.9% NaCl), 6.6mg dexamethasone intravenously and hydrogen peroxide gargles (5ml of 3% hydrogen peroxide in 10ml of water) three times a day. There were early involvement and review of the airway by the anaesthetic and intensive care teams, which was deemed safe at the time. A plan was made for a definitive airway if bleeding reoccurred. Upper airway bleeding can present as a rare form of vape-induced injury and should be considered part of the differential diagnosis particularly in those using CBD oil vapes. History taking is pertinent and patients should be questioned on the specific vape liquids used. Airway stabilisation is the priority with early involvement of the multi-disciplinary team including anaesthetists, intensive care specialists and ENT surgeons.
Immunomodulatory Potential of Cannabidiol in Multiple Sclerosis: a Systematic Review
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Efficacy of treatments for MS is associated with risk of adverse effects, and effective and well-tolerated drugs remain a major unmet need. Cannabis (Cannabis sativa L., fam. Cannabaceae) and cannabinoids are popular among MS patients to treat spasticity and pain. Cannabinoids are endowed with remarkable immunomodulating properties, and in particular the non-psychotropic cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) is increasingly recognized as anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive, nevertheless with excellent tolerability even at high doses. In this systematic review, we retrieved and critically evaluated available evidence regarding the immune and disease-modifying effects of CBD in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and in MS. Evidence in rodent models of EAE strongly supports CBD as effective, while clinical evidence is still limited and usually negative, due to paucity of studies and possibly to the use of suboptimal dosing regimens. Better characterization of targets acted upon by CBD in MS should be obtained in ex vivo/in vitro studies in human immune cells, and higher doses should be tested in well-designed clinical trials with clinically relevant efficacy endpoints. Graphical Abstract.
Cannabis: An Emerging Treatment for Common Symptoms in Older Adults
Use of cannabis is increasing in a variety of populations in the United States; however, few investigations about how and for what reasons cannabis is used in older populations exist.
The Quality of Online Resources Available to Patients Regarding Cannabidiol for Symptomatic Relief of Hip or Knee Arthritis is Poor
This study aimed to assess the quality of online resources pertaining to cannabidiol (CBD) for the nonoperative management of hip and knee arthritis.
Efficacy of topical interventions for temporomandibular disorders compared to placebo or control therapy: a systematic review with meta-analysis
This systematic review focused on the efficacy of topical products in reducing temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD)-associated pain, in comparison to placebo or control interventions. The EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and MEDLINE via PubMed databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using topical interventions in adults diagnosed with TMD. The pain intensity was the primary outcome, and other clinical findings were the secondary outcomes. The risk of bias was evaluated according to the Cochrane's handbook. The search up to February 7, 2020 identified a total of 496 unduplicated references. Nine RCTs with 355 adult patients diagnosed with TMD were included. The meta-analysis did not show a significant reduction in baseline pain intensity in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) group, when compared to the placebo group (P = 0.288). One study demonstrated a statistically significant pain score decrease for Theraflex-TMJ compared to placebo after 10 d of treatment (P = 0.003) and follow-up, 5 d after the last application (P = 0.027). Ping On reduced pain at 4 weeks of application (P < 0.001) but not after 7 d of application (P = 0.136). In one study, cannabidiol (CBD) significantly improved the pain intensity compared to placebo (P < 0.001). However, no differences were found with capsaicin in the two studies (P = 0.465). Evidence was of low quality because the studies were considered as having an unclear or a high risk of bias and a small number of studies were analyzed. The evidence is not sufficient to support the use of topical NSAIDs and capsaicin, and limited evidence was found for Threraflex-TMJ, bee venom, Ping On, and CBD, with only one study reporting for each. Additional studies are recommended to validate these results.
Medical Marijuana and Opioids (MEMO) Study: protocol of a longitudinal cohort study to examine if medical cannabis reduces opioid use among adults with chronic pain
In the USA, opioid analgesic use and overdoses have increased dramatically. One rapidly expanding strategy to manage chronic pain in the context of this epidemic is medical cannabis. Cannabis has analgesic effects, but it also has potential adverse effects. Further, its impact on opioid analgesic use is not well studied. Managing pain in people living with HIV is particularly challenging, given the high prevalence of opioid analgesic and cannabis use. This study's overarching goal is to understand how medical cannabis use affects opioid analgesic use, with attention to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol content, HIV outcomes and adverse events.
Medicinal Applications of Cannabinoids Extracted from Cannabis sativa (L.): A new Route to Fight against COVID-19?
Cannabis sativa is a well-known plant which has been of benefit since ancient times in several medicinal systems, including Chinese, Indian, Greek and Egyptian ones. Although C. sativa is one of the most investigated medicinal plants in the world, it faces the most controversial of issues for its legalization as a medication. C. sativa contains several hundreds of phytoconstituents including the infamous «cannabinoid." It is necessary to properly understand the medicinal importance of these phytochemicals and spread awareness among the countries where it's still facing legal complexities. The current review is focusing on most recent literature pertaining to the various applications of cannabinoids with a special focus on medicinal aspect of the phytochemicals. Peer reviewed articles focusing on the importance of cannabis and cannabinoids were the target of this review. Articles were selected based on the relevance to the general scope of the work i.e. application of cannabinoids. Cannabinoids can truly be regarded as wonder drug keeping their immense diversity of usage but unfortunately, many of the mares never researched biologically or pharmacologically due to their low yield in the plant. However, the approval of some cannabinoids by the FDA (along with other recognized national medical health systems) has opened the horizons for the explicit use of these natural drugs in medicines such as Epidiolex® (cannabidiol used for the treatment of severe forms of epilepsy) and Sativex®('Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol' used for the treatment of spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis, aka: MS.) Many pharmacological properties of C. sativa are attributed to cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive component, along with Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9 -THC), a psychoactive component. This review addresses the most important application or current utilization of cannabinoids in a variety of treatments such as: chronic pain, cancer, emesis, anorexia, irritable bowel syndrome, communicative diseases, glaucoma and central nervous system disorders. The biosynthetic pathway of cannabinoids is also discussed. In short, this plant has a myriad of bioactive compounds which have the potential to increase the list of approved cannabinoids suitable for therapy.
Diversity of molecular targets and signaling pathways for CBD
Cannabidiol (CBD) is the second most abundant component of the Cannabis plant and is known to have effects distinct from Δ -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Many studies that examined the behavioral effects of CBD concluded that it lacks the psychotomimetic effects attributed to THC. However, CBD was shown to have a broad spectrum of effects on several conditions such as anxiety, inflammation, neuropathic pain, and epilepsy. It is currently thought that CBD engages different targets and hence CBD's effects are thought to be due to multiple molecular mechanisms of action. A well-accepted set of targets include GPCRs and ion channels, with the serotonin 5-HT receptor and the transient receptor potential cation channel TRPV1 channel being the two main targets. CBD has also been thought to target G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) such as cannabinoid and opioid receptors. Other studies have suggested a role for additional GPCRs and ion channels as targets of CBD. Currently, the clinical efficacy of CBD is not completely understood. Evidence derived from randomized clinical trials, in vitro and in vivo models and real-world observations support the use of CBD as a drug treatment option for anxiety, neuropathy, and many other conditions. Hence an understanding of the current status of the field as it relates to the targets for CBD is of great interest so, in this review, we include findings from recent studies that highlight these main targets.
In vitro and in vivo pharmacological activity of minor cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa
The Cannabis sativa plant contains more than 120 cannabinoids. With the exceptions of ∆-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), comparatively little is known about the pharmacology of the less-abundant plant-derived (phyto) cannabinoids. The best-studied transducers of cannabinoid-dependent effects are type 1 and type 2 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R, CB2R). Partial agonism of CB1R by ∆-THC is known to bring about the 'high' associated with Cannabis use, as well as the pain-, appetite-, and anxiety-modulating effects that are potentially therapeutic. CB2R activation by certain cannabinoids has been associated with anti-inflammatory activities. We assessed the activity of 8 phytocannabinoids at human CB1R, and CB2R in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing these receptors and in C57BL/6 mice in an attempt to better understand their pharmacodynamics. Specifically, ∆-THC, ∆-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (∆-THCa), ∆-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), CBD, cannabidiolic acid (CBDa), cannabidivarin (CBDV), cannabigerol (CBG), and cannabichromene (CBC) were evaluated. Compounds were assessed for their affinity to receptors, ability to inhibit cAMP accumulation, βarrestin2 recruitment, receptor selectivity, and ligand bias in cell culture; and cataleptic, hypothermic, anti-nociceptive, hypolocomotive, and anxiolytic effects in mice. Our data reveal partial agonist activity for many phytocannabinoids tested at CB1R and/or CB2R, as well as in vivo responses often associated with activation of CB1R. These data build on the growing body of literature showing cannabinoid receptor-dependent pharmacology for these less-abundant phytocannabinoids and are critical in understanding the complex and interactive pharmacology of Cannabis-derived molecules.
Cannabidiol for Pain Treatment: Focus on Pharmacology and Mechanism of Action
Cannabis has a long history of medical use. Although there are many cannabinoids present in cannabis, Δ9tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are the two components found in the highest concentrations. CBD itself does not produce typical behavioral cannabimimetic effects and was thought not to be responsible for psychotropic effects of cannabis. Numerous anecdotal findings testify to the therapeutic effects of CBD, which in some cases were further supported by research findings. However, data regarding CBD's mechanism of action and therapeutic potential are abundant and omnifarious. Therefore, we review the basic research regarding molecular mechanism of CBD's action with particular focus on its analgesic potential. Moreover, this article describes the detailed analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of CBD in various models, including neuropathic pain, inflammatory pain, osteoarthritis and others. The dose and route of the administration-dependent effect of CBD, on the reduction in pain, hyperalgesia or allodynia, as well as the production of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines, were described depending on the disease model. The clinical applications of CBD-containing drugs are also mentioned. The data presented herein unravel what is known about CBD's pharmacodynamics and analgesic effects to provide the reader with current state-of-art knowledge regarding CBD's action and future perspectives for research.
Urinary cannabinoid mass spectrometry profiles differentiate dronabinol from cannabis use
Dronabinol is used to treat a variety of conditions, including loss of appetite in people with AIDS and severe nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy. Its therapeutic potential for pain management is now being explored in specific populations. Monitoring dronabinol compliance is challenging because its active ingredient, Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is also present in cannabis. We developed a rapid LC-MS/MS assay with minimal specimen preparation to quantitate 11 cannabinoids in urine. Using this assay coupled with urine samples from normal controls, cannabis, and dronabinol users, we show the ability to differentiate cannabis from dronabinol use.
Consensus-based recommendations for titrating cannabinoids and tapering opioids for chronic pain control
Opioid misuse and overuse have contributed to a widespread overdose crisis and many patients and physicians are considering medical cannabis to support opioid tapering and chronic pain control. Using a five-step modified Delphi process, we aimed to develop consensus-based recommendations on: 1) when and how to safely initiate and titrate cannabinoids in the presence of opioids, 2) when and how to safely taper opioids in the presence of cannabinoids and 3) how to monitor patients and evaluate outcomes when treating with opioids and cannabinoids.
Use of Cannabis for Self-Management of Chronic Pelvic Pain
Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) affects up to 15% of women in the United States. The endocannabinoid system is a potential pharmacological target for pelvic pain as cannabinoid receptors are highly expressed in the uterus and other nonreproductive tissues. We hypothesize that cannabis use is common for self-management of CPP, and our primary objective was to determine the prevalence of cannabis use in this population. A cross-sectional survey of women with pelvic and perineal pain, dyspareunia, or endometriosis was performed between March and August 2019. Subjects were recruited in an outpatient gynecology office. An anonymous, confidential, electronic survey was performed using a tablet. Statistical analysis was performed using JMP (SAS, Cary, NC). A total of 240 patients were approached, with 113 responses (47.1% response rate). There were 26 patients who used cannabis (23%). The majority used at least once per week ( = 18, 72%). Most users ( = 24, 96%) reported improvement in symptoms, including pain, cramping, muscle spasms, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, libido, and irritability. Over one-third (35%) stated that cannabis use decreased the number of phone calls or messages sent to their provider, and 39% reported decreased number of clinical visits. Side effects, including dry mouth, sleepiness, and feeling "high," were reported by 84% ( = 21). Almost one-quarter of patients with CPP report regular use of cannabis as an adjunct to their prescribed therapy. Although side effects are common, most users report improvement in symptoms. Our study highlights the potential of cannabis as a therapeutic option for patients with CPP.
Reduction in Tamoxifen Metabolites Endoxifen and N-desmethyltamoxifen With Chronic Administration of Low Dose Cannabidiol: A CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 Drug Interaction
Cannabidiol (CBD) serves as a promising medicine, with few known adverse effects apart from the potential of drug interactions with the cytochrome P450 system. It has been hypothesized drug interactions may occur with chemotherapeutic agents, but no supporting evidence has been published to date.
Short-Term Medical Cannabis Treatment Regimens Produced Beneficial Effects among Palliative Cancer Patients
In the last decade the use of medical cannabis (MC) for palliative cancer treatment has risen. However, the choice between products is arbitrary and most patients are using Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-dominant cannabis products. In this study, we aimed to assess the short-term outcomes of MC treatment prescribed by oncologists in relation to the type of cannabis they receive. A comparative analysis was used to assess the differences in treatment effectiveness and safety between THC-dominant ( = 56, 52%), cannabidiol (CBD)-dominant ( = 19, 18%), and mixed ( = 33, 30%) MC treatments. Oncology patients ( = 108) reported on multiple symptoms in baseline questionnaires, initiated MC treatment, and completed a one-month follow-up. Most parameters improved significantly from baseline, including pain intensity, affective and sensory pain, sleep quality and duration, cancer distress, and both physical and psychological symptom burden. There was no significant difference between the three MC treatments in the MC-related safety profile. Generally, there were no differences between the three MC treatments in pain intensity and in most secondary outcomes. Unexpectedly, CBD-dominant oil treatments were similar to THC-dominant treatments in their beneficial effects for most secondary outcomes. THC-dominant treatments showed significant superiority in their beneficial effect only in sleep duration compared to CBD-dominant treatments. This work provides evidence that, though patients usually consume THC-dominant products, caregivers should also consider CBD-dominant products as a useful treatment for cancer-related symptoms.
Combination of UV and MS/MS detection for the LC analysis of cannabidiol-rich products
Cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychoactive cannabinoid, has received a lot of attention due to its potential anti-inflammatory, pain-relieving, and anti-anxiety properties. This has led to a recent boom in CBD-rich commercial products, which are sold without prescription in the form of oils, candies, and cosmetics. Since these products are derived from cannabis, the presence of the psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has to be tested before they enter the market. Here, we present a high-throughput approach based on liquid chromatography coupled to UV and tandem mass spectrometric detection for the determination of CBD, THC, and six other minor cannabinoids (cannabigerolic acid, cannabidivarin, cannabinol, cannabigerol, cannabidiolic acid, and tetrahydrocannabinolic acid) in a wide range of concentrations and in a variety of matrices, including oils, hydrophobic ointments, water-soluble liquids, plant material and gelatinous gummies. Each product was dissolved in a suitable solvent and further diluted to avoid matrix interference. The diluted samples were analyzed by reversed-phase chromatography, coupled to a UV detector followed by a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, used in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. The UV signal was utilized for the quantification of samples containing high levels of CBD, while the mass spectrometer was used for low levels of THC and other minor cannabinoids. This allowed us to meet the required sensitivity for THC while significantly expanding the range of analyzed CBD, all within an 8-min long chromatographic run. The samples were further quantified using calibration in solvent, the approach was validated, and the validation criteria were met for all matrices except for two (i.e., emulsions and gels). The lower limit of quantification for THC was 0.5 μg/g in gummies, 1.0 μg/g in oils, ointments and liquids, and 5.0 μg/g in plant material. CBD was analyzed in the range of 0.5-60,000 μg/g in gummies, 1-120,000 μg/g in oils, ointments and liquids, and 5-300,000 μg/g in plant material. The developed method was used for the analysis of thirteen real products with a wide range of CBD content, with positive THC findings in twelve of them.
Cannabis: are there any benefits?
Cannabis has been used as a medicine for millennia. Prohibition in the mid-20th century precluded early scientific investigation. 'Cannabis' describes three separate forms - herbal cannabis, 'hemp' products, pharmaceutical-grade regulated cannabinoid-based medical products (CBMP). In Australia, CBMP became available for prescription in November 2016. Herbal cannabis with Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is illegal, and cannabidiol (CBD) in herbal extracts, are both unregulated and unreliable sources of cannabinoids. The endocannabinoid system (ECS), delineated in the late 1990s, has increased the understanding and interest in research for appropriate clinical indications. The ubiquitous ECS has homeostatic and anti-inflammatory effects and comprises cannabinoid receptors, endocannabinoids and degrading enzymes. Phytocannabinoids are partial agonists of the ECS. In pre-clinical studies, THC and CBD produce beneficial effects in chronic pain, anxiety, sleep and inflammation. Systematic reviews often conflate herbal cannabis and CBMP, confusing the evidence. Currently large randomised controlled trials are unlikely to be achieved. Other methodologies with quality end-points are required. Rich, valuable high-quality real-world evidence for the safe and effective use of CBMP provides an opportunity to examine benefits and potential harms. Evidence demonstrates benefit of CBMP in multiple sclerosis, chronic neuropathic pain, chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting, resistant paediatric epilepsy, anxiety and insomnia. CBMP are well tolerated with few serious adverse events. Additional clinical benefits are promising in many other resistant chronic conditions. Pharmaceutical grade prescribed CBMP has proven clinical benefits and provides another clinical option in the physician's pharmacopeia.
Endocannabinoid system and cannabis hyperemesis syndrome: a narrative update
Cannabis use has been increasing in the United States and throughout the world. It is derived from one of the earliest plants cultivated by humans - Cannabis sativa. Cannabis (also called marijuana) is the most commonly used psychoactive substance worldwide. The cannabis plant has more than 400 chemicals, of which more than 100 cannabinoids (such as cannabigerol, cannabidiol, and cannabinol) have been identified. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) plays an essential role in the effects of cannabis on end organs. Although cannabis use has been reported for many decades, some of its unique adverse effects of nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, termed as cannabis hyperemesis syndrome (CHS), were noted recently. The legal status of cannabis in the United States has been rapidly changing from state to state. The incidence of CHS is expected to rise with rising access to cannabis in the United States. Furthermore, CHS is frequently underdiagnosed due to a lack of uniform criteria, subjective nature of symptoms, and overlap with cyclical vomiting syndrome (CVS). Understanding the ECS and its role in biphasic response (proemetic and antiemetic) of CHS is critical to explain its pathophysiology. As the use of cannabis increases globally, awareness of CHS is warranted for early recognition and prompt treatment to avoid complications. We describe the putative mechanism of CHS with an overview of the clinical features in these patients. Furthermore, we highlight the differences between CHS and CVS with important differentials to consider. We provide a narrative update on the current evidence on CHS pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and identifying research gaps.
CBD and THC: Do They Complement Each Other Like Yin and Yang?
Increased public access to cannabis calls for a deeper understanding of cannabis's constituents and how they interact to induce clinical effects. Whereas trans-Δ -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is considered the main psychoactive component in cannabis, producing the associated "high" or "euphoria," various findings demonstrate medical potential for cannabidiol (CBD), from anxiolytic to antiepileptic implications. This has translated into a public optimism and given way to the popular opinion that CBD can provide countless other therapeutic benefits, including the potential to mitigate some of the adverse side effects of THC, such as intoxication, psychomotor impairment, anxiety, and psychotic symptoms. This is particularly relevant for patients seeking to garner therapeutic benefits from cannabis without experiencing the burden of a significant subjective high. Thus, this article analyzes the scientific evidence available to support or disprove the idea that presence of CBD is beneficial and can exude a protective effect against THC. A thorough review of relevant literature, a basis from which to interpret such evidence through a critical mechanistic discussion, and the implications for patients are presented in this article.
Chronic cannabis consumption and physical exercise performance in healthy adults: a systematic review
The effects of chronic cannabis consumption on physiological parameters of athletic performance are investigated to determine whether chronic cannabis consumption negatively affects athletic performance; improves performance, potentially via enhanced recovery; or has no effect at all.
Ingestion of a THC-Rich Cannabis Oil in People with Fibromyalgia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial
To determine the benefit of a tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-rich cannabis oil on symptoms and quality of life of fibromyalgia patients.
Prescribing medicinal cannabis
The Australian Federal Government legalised access to medicinal cannabis in 2016 More than 100 different cannabis products are now available to prescribe. Most are oral preparations (oils) or capsules containing delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol or cannabidiol. Dried-flower products are also available As most products are unregistered drugs, prescribing requires approval under the Therapeutic Goods Administration Special Access Scheme-B or Authorised Prescriber Scheme Special Access Scheme Category B applications can be made online, with approval usually being given within 24–48 hours. However, supply chain problems may delay dispensing by the pharmacy By the end of 2019, over 28,000 prescribing approvals had been issued to patients, involving more than 1400 doctors, mostly GPs. More than 70,000 approvals are projected by the end of 2020 Most prescriptions are for chronic non-cancer pain, anxiety, cancer-related symptoms, epilepsy and other neurological disorders. However, the evidence supporting some indications is limited Many doctors are cautious about prescribing cannabis. While serious adverse events are rare, there are legitimate concerns around driving, cognitive impairment and drug dependence with products containing delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Cannabidiol-only products pose fewer risks
A Critical Review of the Role of the Cannabinoid Compounds Δ-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD) and their Combination in Multiple Sclerosis Treatment
Many people with MS (pwMS) use unregulated cannabis or cannabis products to treat the symptoms associated with the disease. In line with this, Sativex, a synthetic combination of cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-THC) has been approved to treat symptoms of spasticity. In animals, CBD is effective in reducing the amounts of T-cell infiltrates in the spinal cord, suggesting CBD has anti-inflammatory properties. By doing this, CBD has shown to delay symptom onset in animal models of multiple sclerosis and slow disease progression. Importantly, combinations of CBD and Δ-THC appear more effective in treating animal models of multiple sclerosis. While CBD reduces the amounts of cell infiltrates in the spinal cord, Δ-THC reduces scores of spasticity. In human studies, the results are less encouraging and conflict with the findings in animals. Drugs which deliver a combination of Δ-THC and CBD in a 1:1 ratio appear to be only moderately effective in reducing spasticity scores, but appear to be almost as effective as current front-line treatments and cause less severe side effects than other treatments, such as baclofen (a GABA-B receptor agonist) and tizanidine (an α2 adrenergic receptor agonist). The findings of the studies reviewed suggest that cannabinoids may help treat neuropathic pain in pwMS as an add-on therapy to already established pain treatments. It is important to note that treatment with cannabinoid compounds may cause significant cognitive dysfunction. Long term double-blind placebo studies are greatly needed to further our understanding of the role of cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis treatment.
Cannabidiol for the treatment of cannabis use disorder: a phase 2a, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, adaptive Bayesian trial
Background A substantial and unmet clinical need exists for pharmacological treatment of cannabis use disorders. Cannabidiol could offer a novel treatment, but it is unclear which doses might be efficacious or safe. Therefore, we aimed to identify efficacious doses and eliminate inefficacious doses in a phase 2a trial using an adaptive Bayesian design.
Crowdfunding Cannabidiol (CBD) for Cancer: Hype and Misinformation on GoFundMe
To use crowdfunding campaigns to better understand how cannabidiol (CBD) is represented (and misrepresented) as cancer-related care. We analyzed CBD-related crowdfunding campaigns (n = 155) created between January 2017 and May 2019 in multiple countries on GoFundme.com. More than 81.9% of campaigns fundraised CBD for curative or life-prolonging reasons, and 25.2% fundraised for pain management. Most campaigns seeking funds for CBD for cancer-related care on GoFundMe are for curative or life-prolonging purposes and present CBD definitively as an effective treatment option. In general, campaigners supported their funding requests with anecdotal claims of efficacy and referenced sources of information that were either not evidence-based or that misrepresented existing evidence. Misinformation around CBD for cancer is widespread on medical crowdfunding campaigns. Given the potential adverse impact, crowdfunding platforms, like GoFundMe, must take steps to address their role in enabling and spreading this misinformation.
Use of Cannabis and Cannabinoids in Patients With Cancer
To review pharmacology, available dosage forms, efficacy, and safety of cannabis and cannabinoids in cancer patients.
Serum cannabidiol, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and their native acid derivatives after transdermal application of a low-THC Cannabis sativa extract in beagles
Cannabinoids hold promise for treating health problems related to inflammation and chronic pain in dogs, in particular cannabidiol (CBD), and its native acid derivative cannabidiolic acid (CBDA). Information regarding systemic delivery of cannabinoids through transdermal routes is sparse. The purpose of this study was to determine pharmacokinetics of transdermal administration of a low-THC Cannabis sativa extract in healthy dogs. Six purpose-bred research beagles were treated with a transdermal CBD-CBDA-rich extract, and serum concentrations of CBD, CBDA, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and its acid derivative tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) were examined prior to and at the end of weeks 1 and 2. A 4 mg/kg dose of total cannabinoids twice daily resulted in appx 10 ng/ml of CBD, 21-32 ng/ml of CBDA, trace amounts of THCA, and unquantifiable amounts of THC in serum at the end of weeks 1 and 2 of treatment. Results showed that CBDA and THCA were absorbed better systemically than CBD or THC.
Calling for Openness to the Study of Cannabis Use in Chronic Pelvic Pain
Chronic pelvic pain affects women across all demographics. Its management is complex and requires a multimodal approach. Cannabis has been legal for medical purposes for many years; however, its pharmacokinetics are just beginning to be understood, as are its analgesic effects and other benefits, such as improved sleep quality and reduced nausea and vomiting. Given the recent Canada-wide legalization of cannabis for non-medical use, patients may be more willing to disclose cannabis use and use it for pain management. Given the complexity of chronic pain management, physicians must be open to cannabis as an analgesic option. Cannabis use may decrease the need for opioids, a phenomenon that could reduce opioid dependency. Now is the ideal time to study patients' use of and perspectives on cannabis for pain relief in order to establish its effectiveness and safety. Cannabis shows potential to be a key player in a multimodal approach to chronic pelvic pain.
Cannabidiol Oil-Associated Microscopic Colitis
Microscopic colitis (MC) is a chronic inflammation condition of the colon characterized by watery diarrhea and normal appearing mucosa. A 75-year-old female presented with one-year history of chronic diarrhea while taking cannabidiol (CBD) for pain. Colonoscopy with random colon biopsies revealed collagenous colitis. She started budesonide and stopped CBD. At six-week follow-up, her diarrhea improved, and the budesonide dose was decreased. She restarted CBD oil twice but had diarrhea both times. Her diarrhea resolved after taking budesonide and stopping CBD. We report a case of CBD-associated MC to make clinicians aware of this potential adverse effect in patients who chronically use CBD.
It Is Our Turn to Get Cannabis High: Put Cannabinoids in Food and Health Baskets
Cannabis is an annual plant with a long history of use as food, feed, fiber, oil, medicine, and narcotics. Despite realizing its true value, it has not yet found its true place. Cannabis has had a long history with many ups and downs, and now it is our turn to promote it. Cannabis contains approximately 600 identified and many yet unidentified potentially useful compounds. Cannabinoids, phenolic compounds, terpenoids, and alkaloids are some of the secondary metabolites present in cannabis. However, among a plethora of unique chemical compounds found in this plant, the most important ones are phytocannabinoids (PCs). Over hundreds of 21-22-carbon compounds exclusively produce in cannabis glandular hairs through either polyketide and or deoxyxylulose phosphate/methylerythritol phosphate (DOXP/MEP) pathways. Trans-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are those that first come to mind while talking about cannabis. Nevertheless, despite the low concentration, cannabinol (CBN), cannabigerol (CBG), cannabichromene (CBC), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), cannabidivarin (CBDV), cannabinodiol (CBND), and cannabinidiol (CBDL) may have potentially some medical effects. PCs and endocannabinoids (ECs) mediate their effects mainly through CB1 and CB2 receptors. Despite all concerns regarding cannabis, nobody can ignore the use of cannabinoids as promising tonic, analgesic, antipyretic, antiemetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-epileptic, anticancer agents, which are effective for pain relief, depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, nausea and vomiting, multiple sclerosis, cardiovascular disorders, and appetite stimulation. The scientific community and public society have now increasingly accepted cannabis specifically hemp as much more than a recreational drug. There are growing demands for cannabinoids, mainly CBD, with many diverse therapeutic and nutritional properties in veterinary or human medicine. The main objective of this review article is to historically summarize findings concerning cannabinoids, mainly THC and CBD, towards putting these valuable compounds into food, feed and health baskets and current and future trends in the consumption of products derived from cannabis.
Mast Cell Regulation and Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Effects of Food Components with Potential Nutraceutical Use
Mast cells are key actors in inflammatory reactions. Upon activation, they release histamine, heparin and nerve growth factor, among many other mediators that modulate immune response and neuron sensitization. One important feature of mast cells is that their population is usually increased in animal models and biopsies from patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Therefore, mast cells and mast cell mediators are regarded as key components in IBS pathophysiology. IBS is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder affecting the quality of life of up to 20% of the population worldwide. It is characterized by abdominal pain and altered bowel habits, with heterogeneous phenotypes ranging from constipation to diarrhea, with a mixed subtype and even an unclassified form. Nutrient intake is one of the triggering factors of IBS. In this respect, certain components of the daily food, such as fatty acids, amino acids or plant-derived substances like flavonoids, have been described to modulate mast cells' activity. In this review, we will focus on the effect of these molecules, either stimulatory or inhibitory, on mast cell degranulation, looking for a nutraceutical capable of decreasing IBS symptoms.
Cannabidiol Content and In Vitro Biological Activities of Commercial Cannabidiol Oils and Hemp Seed Oils
Hemp ( L.) seed contains high contents of various nutrients, including fatty acids and proteins. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive compound that can be extracted from and used for treating epilepsy and pain. Industrial hemp products, including CBD and hemp seed oils, have become increasingly popular. Some products are marketed without a clear distinction between CBD and hemp seed oils. Herein, the CBD content and biological activities of commercial CBD and hemp seed oils were examined. CBD content was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. For in vitro antioxidant activity determination, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical-scavenging assays were performed. The CBD concentrations in the two CBD oil samples were 18.9 ± 0.5 and 9.2 ± 0.4 mg/mL. Of the seven hemp seed oil samples, six samples contained CBD in concentrations ranging from 2.0 ± 0.1 to 20.5 ± 0.5 µg/mL, but it was not detected in one sample. Antioxidant activity was observed in both CBD oil samples. The results indicate that (1) CBD content varied by hemp seed oil sample and that (2) antioxidant activity could be a useful landmark for discriminating CBD oils from hemp seed oils.
Understanding the Medical Chemistry of the Cannabis Plant is Critical to Guiding Real World Clinical Evidence
While cannabis has been consumed for thousands of years, the medical-legal landscape surrounding its use has dramatically evolved over the past decades. Patients are turning to cannabis as a therapeutic option for several medical conditions. Given the surge in interest over the past decades there exists a major gap in the literature with respect to understanding the products that are currently being consumed by patients. The current perspective highlights the lack of relevance within the current literature towards understanding the medical chemistry of the products being consumed. The cannabis industry must rigorously invest into understanding what people are consuming from a chemical composition standpoint. This will inform what compounds in addition to Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol may be producing physiologic/therapeutic effects from plant based extracts. Only through real-world evidence and a formalized, granular data collection process within which we know the chemical inputs for patients already using or beginning to use medical cannabis, we can come closer to the ability to provide targeted clinical decision making and design future appropriate randomized controlled trials.
Effects on the post-translational modification of H3K4Me3, H3K9ac, H3K9Me2, H3K27Me3, and H3K36Me2 levels in cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and pons of rats after a systemic administration of cannabidiol: A Preliminary Study
Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotropic constituent of Cannabis sativa, has shown therapeutic promises by modulating several pathological conditions, including pain, epilepsy autism, among others. However, the molecular mechanism of action of CBD remains unknown and recent data suggest the engagement on CBD´s effects of nuclear elements, such as histone activity.
Therapeutic Efficacy of Cannabidiol (CBD): A Review of the Evidence from Clinical Trials and Human Laboratory Studies
Global policy changes have increased access to products containing cannabidiol (CBD), a primary constituent of hemp and cannabis. The CBD product industry has experienced tremendous growth, in part, because CBD is widely touted as an effective therapeutic for myriad health conditions. However, only 1 CBD product (Epidiolex®) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to date. There is substantial interest among consumers and the medical and scientific communities regarding the therapeutic potential of CBD, including for novel indications that are not recognized by the FDA. The purpose of this review was to synthesize available evidence from clinical research regarding the efficacy of CBD as a therapeutic.
Cannabidiol and Oxygen-Ozone Combination Induce Cytotoxicity in Human Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is related to lifestyle risks, chronic inflammation, and germline mutations in , , , , or . Surgical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy are the main therapeutic strategies but are less effective in patients with high-grade tumors. Oxygen-ozone (O/O) therapy is an emerging alternative tool for the treatment of several clinical disorders. O/O therapy has been found to ameliorate mechanisms promoting chronic pain and inflammation, including hypoxia, inflammatory mediators, and infection. The advantages of using cannabinoids have been evaluated in vitro and in vivo models of several human cancers. Regarding PDAC, activation of cannabinoid receptors was found to induce pancreatic cancer cell apoptosis without affecting the normal pancreas cells. In a murine model of PDAC, a combination of cannabidiol (CBD) and gemcitabine increased survival length by nearly three times. Herein, we evaluate the anticancer effect of CBD and O/O, alone or in combination, on two human PDAC cell lines, PANC-1 and MiaPaCa-2, examining expression profiles of 92 pancreatic adenocarcinoma associated genes, cytotoxicity, migration properties, and cell death. Finally, we assess the combination effects with gemcitabine and paclitaxel. Summarizing, for the first time the antitumoral effect of combined therapy with CBD and oxygen-ozone therapy in PDAC is evidenced.
Use of cannabidiol (CBD) for the treatment of chronic pain
Chronic pain can be recurrent or constant pain that lasts for longer than 3 months and can result in disability, suffering, and a physical disturbance. Related to the complex nature of chronic pain, treatments have a pharmacological and non-pharmacological approach. Due to the opioid epidemic, alternative therapies have been introduced, and components of the plant Cannabis Sativa, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) have gained recent interest as a choice of treatment. The exact mechanism for CBD is currently unknown, but unlike the CBD's psychoactive counterpart, THC, the side effects of CBD itself have been shown to be overall much more benign. The current pharmaceutical products for the treatment of chronic pain are known as nabiximols, and they contain a ratio of THC combined with CBD, which has been promising. This review focuses on the treatment efficacy of CBD, THC: CBD-based treatments for chronic pain and adverse events with each.
Cannabis and cannabidiol (CBD) for the treatment of fibromyalgia
Fibromyalgia is a complex disease process that is as prevalent as it is poorly understood. Research into the pathophysiology is ongoing, and findings will likely assist in identifying new therapeutic options to augment those in existence today that are still insufficient for the care of a large population of patients. Recent evidence describes the use of cannabinoids in the treatment of fibromyalgia. This study provides a systematic, thorough review of the evidence alongside a review of the seminal data regarding the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and current treatment options. Fibromyalgia is characterized by widespread chronic pain, fatigue, and depressive episodes without an organic diagnosis, which may be prevalent in up to 10% of the population and carries a significant cost in healthcare utilization, morbidity, a reduced quality of life, and productivity. It is frequently associated with psychiatric comorbidities. The diagnosis is clinical and usually prolonged, and diagnostic criteria continue to evolve. Some therapies have been previously described, including neuropathic medications, milnacipran, and antidepressants. Despite some level of efficacy, only physical exercise has strong evidence to support it. Cannabis has been used historically to treat different pain conditions since ancient times. Recent advances allowed for the isolation of the active substances in cannabis and the production of cannabinoid products that are nearly devoid of psychoactive influence and provide pain relief and alleviation of other symptoms. Many of these, as well as cannabis itself, are approved for use in chronic pain conditions. Evidence supporting cannabis in chronic pain conditions is plentiful; however, in fibromyalgia, they are mostly limited. Only a handful of randomized trials exists, and their objectivity has been questioned. However, many retrospective trials and patient surveys suggest the significant alleviation of pain, improvement in sleep, and abatement of associated symptoms. Evidence supporting the use of cannabis in chronic pain and specifically in fibromyalgia is being gathered as the use of cannabis increases with current global trends. While the current evidence is still limited, emerging data do suggest a positive effect of cannabis in fibromyalgia. Cannabis use is not without risks, including psychiatric, cognitive, and developmental as well as the risks of addiction. As such, clinical judgment is warranted to weigh these risks and prescribe to patients who are more likely to benefit from this treatment. Further research is required to define appropriate patient selection and treatment regimens.
Oral Transmucosal Cannabidiol Oil Formulation as Part of a Multimodal Analgesic Regimen: Effects on Pain Relief and Quality of Life Improvement in Dogs Affected by Spontaneous Osteoarthritis
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral transmucosal (OTM) cannabidiol (CBD), in addition to a multimodal pharmacological treatment for chronic osteoarthritis-related pain in dogs. Twenty-one dogs were randomly divided into two groups: in group CBD ( = 9), OTM CBD (2 mg kg every 12 h) was included in the therapeutic protocol (anti-inflammatory drug, gabapentin, amitriptyline), while in group C ( = 12), CBD was not administered. Dogs were evaluated by owners based on the Canine Brief Pain Inventory scoring system before treatment initiation (T0), and one (T1), two (T2), four (T3) and twelve (T4) weeks thereafter. Pain Severity Score was significantly lower in CBD than in C group at T1 ( = 0.0002), T2 ( = 0.0043) and T3 ( = 0.016). Pain Interference Score was significantly lower in CBD than in C group at T1 ( = 0.0002), T2 ( = 0.0007) and T4 ( = 0.004). Quality of Life Index was significantly higher in CBD group at T1 ( = 0.003). The addition of OTM CBD showed promising results. Further pharmacokinetics and long-term studies in larger populations are needed to encourage its inclusion into a multimodal pharmacological approach for canine osteoarthritis-related pain.
Receptors and Channels Possibly Mediating the Effects of Phytocannabinoids on Seizures and Epilepsy
Epilepsy contributes to approximately 1% of the global disease burden. By affecting especially young children as well as older persons of all social and racial variety, epilepsy is a present disorder worldwide. Currently, only 65% of epileptic patients can be successfully treated with antiepileptic drugs. For this reason, alternative medicine receives more attention. Cannabis has been cultivated for over 6000 years to treat pain and insomnia and used since the 19th century to suppress epileptic seizures. The two best described phytocannabinoids, (-)--Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are claimed to have positive effects on different neurological as well as neurodegenerative diseases, including epilepsy. There are different cannabinoids which act through different types of receptors and channels, including the cannabinoid receptor 1 and 2 (CB, CB), G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) and 18 (GPR18), opioid receptor µ and δ, transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) and 2 (TRPV2), type A γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAR) and voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC). The mechanisms and importance of the interaction between phytocannabinoids and their different sites of action regarding epileptic seizures and their clinical value are described in this review.
Pharmacology, Clinical Effects, and Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoids for Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases
Cannabis and cannabinoids (such as tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol) are frequently used to relieve gastrointestinal symptoms. Cannabinoids have effects on the immune system and inflammatory responses, as well as neuromuscular and sensory functions of digestive organs, including pancreas and liver. Cannabinoids can cause hyperemesis and cyclic vomiting syndrome, but they might also be used to reduce gastrointestinal, pancreatic, or hepatic inflammation, as well as to treat motility, pain, and functional disorders. Cannabinoids activate cannabinoid receptors, which inhibit release of transmitters from presynaptic neurons and also inhibit diacylglycerol lipase alpha, to prevent synthesis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol. However, randomized trials are needed to clarify their effects in patients; these compounds can have adverse effects on the central nervous system (such as somnolence and psychosis) or the developing fetus, when used for nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Cannabinoid-based therapies can also hide symptoms and disease processes, such as in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. It is important for gastroenterologists and hepatologists to understand cannabinoid mechanisms, effects, and risks.
Bioactive Chemical Composition of Cannabis Extracts and Cannabinoid Receptors
Cannabis is widely used as a therapeutic drug, especially by patients suffering from psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the complex interplay between phytocannabinoids and their targets in the human receptome remains largely a mystery, and there have been few investigations into the relationship between the chemical composition of medical cannabis and the corresponding biological activity. In this study, we investigated 59 cannabis samples used by patients for medical reasons. The samples were subjected to extraction (microwave and supercritical carbon dioxide) and chemical analyses, and the resulting extracts were assayed in vitro using the CB and CB receptors. Using a partial least squares regression analysis, the chemical compositions of the extracts were then correlated to their corresponding cannabinoid receptor activities, thus generating predictive models that describe the receptor potency as a function of major phytocannabinoid content. Using the current dataset, meaningful models for CB and CB receptor agonism were obtained, and these reveal the insignificant relationships between the major phytocannabinoid content and receptor affinity for CB but good correlations between the two at CB receptors. These results also explain the anomalies between the receptor activities of pure phytocannabinoids and cannabis extracts. Furthermore, the models for CB and CB agonism in cannabis extracts predict the cannabinoid receptor activities of individual phytocannabinoids with reasonable accuracy. Here for the first time, we disclose a method to predict the relationship between the chemical composition, including phytocannabinoids, of cannabis extracts and cannabinoid receptor responses.
Effect of Inhaled Cannabis for Pain in Adults With Sickle Cell Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by chronic pain and episodic acute pain caused by vasoocclusive crises, often requiring high doses of opioids for prolonged periods. In humanized mouse models of SCD, a synthetic cannabinoid has been found to attenuate both chronic and acute hyperalgesia. The effect of cannabis on chronic pain in adults with SCD is unknown.
High Prevalence of Cannabidiol Use Within Male Professional Rugby Union and League Players: A Quest for Pain Relief and Enhanced Recovery
Rugby is characterized by frequent high-intensity collisions, resulting in muscle soreness. Players consequently seek strategies to reduce soreness and accelerate recovery, with an emerging method being cannabidiol (CBD), despite anti-doping risks. The prevalence and rationale for CBD use in rugby has not been explored; therefore, we recruited professional male players to complete a survey on CBD. Goodness of fit chi-square (χ2) was used to assess CBD use between codes and player position. Effects of age on use were determined using χ2 tests of independence. Twenty-five teams provided 517 player responses. While the majority of players had never used CBD (p < .001, V = 0.24), 26% had either used it (18%) or were still using it (8%). Significantly more CBD use was observed in rugby union compared with rugby league (p = .004, V = 0.13), but player position was not a factor (p = .760, V = 0.013). CBD use increased with players' age (p < .001, V = 0.28), with mean use reaching 41% in the players aged 28 years and older category (p < .0001). The players using CBD primarily used the Internet (73%) or another teammate (61%) to obtain information, with only 16% consulting a nutritionist. The main reasons for CBD use were improving recovery/pain (80%) and sleep (78%), with 68% of players reporting a perceived benefit. These data highlight the need for immediate education on the risks of CBD, as well as the need to explore the claims regarding pain and sleep.
Medical cannabis: What practitioners need to know
The South African (SA) Constitutional Court recently decriminalised the private cultivation, possession and use of cannabis by adults. Cannabis contains varying amounts of the cannabinoids delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), depending on various cultivation factors. No commercial plant-derived cannabis products are currently registered by the SA Health Products Regulatory Authority (SAHPRA) for medical use. Such products are therefore unregulated, but are freely available in SA, and may be of inadequate quality and unverified composition, and not guaranteed to be safe or effective. SAHPRA has to date approved only one synthetic medical cannabis product, dronabinol. Evidence supporting benefit from medical cannabis exists for two drug-resistant childhood forms of epilepsy, Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Adjuvant therapy with medical cannabis can reduce seizure frequency for Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome by 18.8% and 22.8%, respectively, and may be beneficial for other rare forms of epilepsy. There is moderate evidence for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting with the synthetic cannabinoids. Multiple sclerosis-associated spasticity showed a small clinical improvement in self-reported spasticity when a purified form of THC/CBD was added to existing therapy. Currently, low-level or no convincing evidence exists for the use of medical cannabis for chronic pain, sleep and weight disorders, and neuropsychiatric disorders. Cannabis is associated with a greater risk of adverse effects than active and placebo controls, and may be involved in clinically significant drug-drug interactions. The evolving regulatory and legal landscape on the use of medical cannabis will guide prescription and recreational use in the coming years.
Pharmacological treatment of central neuropathic pain: consensus of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology
Central neuropathic pain (CNP) is often refractory to available therapeutic strategies and there are few evidence-based treatment options. Many patients with neuropathic pain are not diagnosed or treated properly. Thus, consensus-based recommendations, adapted to the available drugs in the country, are necessary to guide clinical decisions.
Cannabis in Parkinson's Disease: The Patients' View
Little is known about the patients' view on treatment with medical cannabis (MC) for Parkinson's disease (PD).
Demystifying Cannabis: A Review of Its Pharmacology, Use in Pain, and Safety Concerns
The uses for cannabis and its synthetic derivatives continue to grow, as the regulatory status surrounding the drug becomes more legalized. Cannabis is composed of many chemical compounds, called cannabinoids, of which cannabidiol and 9-tetrahydrocannabinol have been studied for medicinal uses. As a modality for treatment of pain, cannabis may have benefit for use in treatment of neuropathic pain, with limited data for use in rheumatic pain. However, there are both short-term and long-term adverse effects with cannabis use that should be monitored in those who use cannabis for medicinal purposes, which include worsened anxiety and potential development of cannabis use disorder.
Emerging role of cannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoid receptor 1/cannabinoid receptor 2 receptor agonists in cancer treatment and chemotherapy-associated cancer management
Cannabis was extensively utilized for its medicinal properties till the 19 century. A steep decline in its medicinal usage was observed later due to its emergence as an illegal recreational drug. Advances in technology and scientific findings led to the discovery of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive compound of cannabis, that further led to the discovery of endogenous cannabinoids system consisting of G-protein-coupled receptors - cannabinoid receptor 1 and cannabinoid receptor 2 along with their ligands, mainly anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol. Endocannabinoid (EC) is shown to be a modulator not only for physiological functions but also for the immune system, endocrine network, and central nervous system. Medicinal research and meta-data analysis over the last few decades have shown a significant potential for both THC and cannabidiol (CBD) to exert palliative effects. People suffering from many forms of advanced stages of cancers undergo chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting followed by severe and chronic neuropathic pain and weight loss. THC and CBD exhibit effective analgesic, anxiolytic, and appetite-stimulating effect on patients suffering from cancer. Drugs currently available in the market to treat such chemotherapy-induced cancer-related ailments are Sativex (GW Pharmaceutical), Dronabinol (Unimed Pharmaceuticals), and Nabilone (Valeant Pharmaceuticals). Apart from exerting palliative effects, THC also shows promising role in the treatment of cancer growth, neurodegenerative diseases (multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease), and alcohol addiction and hence should be exploited for potential benefits. The current review discusses the nature and role of CB receptors, specific applications of cannabinoids, and major studies that have assessed the role of cannabinoids in cancer management.
Constituents of Cannabis Sativa
The Cannabis sativa plant has been used medicinally and recreationally for thousands of years, but recently only relatively some of its constituents have been identified. There are more than 550 chemical compounds in cannabis, with more than 100 phytocannabinoids being identified, including Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). These phytocannabinoids work by binding to the cannabinoid receptors, as well as other receptor systems. Also within cannabis are the aromatic terpenes, more than 100 of which have been identified. Cannabis and its constituents have been indicated as therapeutic compounds in numerous medical conditions, such as pain, anxiety, epilepsy, nausea and vomiting, and post-traumatic stress disorder. This chapter provides an overview of some of the biological effects of a number of the cannabinoids and terpenes, as well as discussing their known mechanisms of action and evidence of potential therapeutic effects.
Cannabidiol (CBD): Perspectives from Pinterest
Pinterest, a widely used social media platform, has shaped how people seek and share health information. Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive component of cannabis is marketed as a treatment for many conditions and sales rose to more than 820 million in 2017. Yet CBD is mostly unregulated, legality is murky, and many of the health claims are not scientifically proven. This content analysis examined how CBD products were portrayed on Pinterest. : In 2018, using the search terms cannabidiol and CBD, researchers sampled every fifth pin to collect 226 relevant pins. A codebook was developed, pilot tested, and used to code pins. : The majority (91.6%) of pins positively portrayed CBD with many claiming a physical or mental benefit including anxiety, depression, pain, and inflammation relief. Most pins did not (98.2%) address potential side effects or recommend dosage. In this sample, user engagement was high with 85.2% of pins being saved and links to commercial sites selling CBD products, personal blogs, and social media accounts. : Social media has become a powerful source of health information. This study revealed widespread acceptance of the use of CBD products with minimal information from reliable public health sources represented.
Neuropharmacological Effects of the Main Phytocannabinoids: A Narrative Review
Cannabis can synthetize more than 400 compounds, including terpenes, flavonoids, and more than 100 phytocannabinoids. The main phytocannabinoids are Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Cannabis-based products are used as medicines in several countries. In this text, we present an overview of the main neurochemical mechanisms of action of the phytocannabinoids, especially THC and CBD. We also reviewed the indications and adverse effects of the main cannabis-based medicinal products. THC acts as a partial agonist at cannabinoid 1/2 receptors (CB). It is responsible for the characteristic effects of cannabis, such as euphoria, relaxation, and changes in perceptions. THC can also produce dysphoria, anxiety, and psychotic symptoms. THC is used therapeutically in nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy, as an appetite stimulant, and in chronic pain. CBD acts as a noncompetitive negative allosteric modulator of the CB receptor, as an inverse agonist of the CB receptor, and as an inhibitor of the reuptake of the endocannabinoid anandamide. Moreover, CBD also activates 5-HT serotonergic receptors and vanilloid receptors. Its use in treatment-resistant epilepsy syndromes is approved in some countries. CBD does not produce the typical effects associated with THC and has anxiolytic and antipsychotic effects. Some of the most common adverse effects of CBD are diarrhea, somnolence, nausea, and transaminase elevations (with concomitant use of antiepileptics). The mechanisms of action involved in both the therapeutic and adverse effects of the phytocannabinoids are not fully understood, involving not only the endocannabinoid system. This "promiscuous" pharmacology could be responsible for their wide therapeutic spectrum.
Duration of Neurocognitive Impairment With Medical Cannabis Use: A Scoping Review
While the recreational use of cannabis has well-established dose-dependent effects on neurocognitive and psychomotor functioning, there is little consensus on the degree and duration of impairment typically seen with medical marijuana use. Compared to recreational cannabis users, medical cannabis patients have distinct characteristics that may modify the presence and extent of impairment. The goal of this review was to determine the duration of acute neurocognitive impairment associated with medical cannabis use, and to identify differences between medical cannabis patients and recreational users. These findings are used to gain insight on how medical professionals can best advise medical cannabis patients with regards to automobile driving or safety-sensitive tasks at work. A systematic electronic search for English language randomized controlled trials (RCTs), clinical trials and systematic reviews (in order to capture any potentially missed RCTs) between 2000 and 2019 was conducted through Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE electronic databases using MeSH terms. Articles were limited to medical cannabis patients using cannabis for chronic non-cancer pain or spasticity. After screening titles and abstracts, 37 relevant studies were subjected to full-text review. Overall, seven controlled trials met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were included in the qualitative synthesis: six RCTs and one observational clinical trial. Neurocognitive testing varied significantly between all studies, including the specific tests administered and the timing of assessments post-cannabis consumption. In general, cognitive performance declined mostly in a THC dose-dependent manner, with steady resolution of impairment in the hours following THC administration. Doses of THC were lower than those typically reported in recreational cannabis studies. In all the studies, there was no difference between any of the THC groups and placebo on any neurocognitive measure after 4 h of recovery. Variability in the dose-dependent relationship raises the consideration that there are other important factors contributing to the duration of neurocognitive impairment besides the dose of THC ingested. These modifiable and non-modifiable factors are individually discussed.
CBD Effects on TRPV1 Signaling Pathways in Cultured DRG Neurons
Cannabidiol (CBD) is reported to produce pain relief, but the clinically relevant cellular and molecular mechanisms remain uncertain. The TRPV1 receptor integrates noxious stimuli and plays a key role in pain signaling. Hence, we conducted in vitro studies, to elucidate the efficacy and mechanisms of CBD for inhibiting neuronal hypersensitivity in cultured rat sensory neurons, following activation of TRPV1.
An Analysis of the Putative CBD Binding Site in the Ionotropic Cannabinoid Receptors
Cannabinoids have been long studied for their therapeutic properties, particularly for their use in the treatment of pain. As new therapies are sought after to treat conditions of chronic pain, so is a better understanding of the ligands and their target receptors or channels. A recently published cryo-EM structure showed the putative binding location of a well-known cannabinoid ligand, cannabidiol (CBD), in TRPV2, a channel that has been implicated in inflammation and chronic pain. TRPV2, along with TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPA1, and TRPM8 all have the capability to be modulated by cannabinoid ligands and are located in the peripheral nervous system. Here, we analyze the putative CBD binding site in each of these channels and compare structural and sequential information with experimental data.
Use and Reported Helpfulness of Cannabinoids Among Primary Care Patients in Vermont
While cannabis has been medically legal in Vermont since 2004 and recreationally legal since 2018 there has been minimal published research regarding the use and practices in the adult population. This gap in understanding results in primary care providers having difficulty navigating conversations surrounding cannabinoid use. The purpose of this research was to identify current use and perceptions of cannabinoids, including Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), in adult primary care patients in Vermont. An anonymous written survey was given to 1009 Vermont primary care patients aged 18 years and older. All measures were patient-reported and included use of CBD and THC products, perceived helpfulness for certain medical conditions, knowledge of CBD and THC, perceived knowledge of their provider, and concerns regarding cannabis legalization. 45% of adult primary care patients reported using cannabinoids in the past year. Only 18% of patients reported their provider as being a good source of information regarding cannabis. Of the patients who used cannabis in the past year, a majority reported it helpful for conditions such as anxiety and depression, arthritis, pain, sleep, and nausea. Primary care providers need to be knowledgeable about cannabinoids to best support patient care. In addition, with a significant number of patients reporting cannabinoids helpful for medical conditions common in primary care, it is important that research continue to identify the potential benefits and harms of cannabis.
Insights on cannabidiol's antiallodynic and anxiolytic mechanisms of action in a model of neuropathic pain
Recent studies have shown that cannabidiol (CBD) could have a great therapeutic potential for treating disorders such as chronic pain and anxiety. In the target article, the authors propose that CBD modulates serotonergic transmission and reverses allodynia and anxiety-like behaviour in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Furthermore, this study shows an antinociceptive effect mediated by TRPV and partially by 5-HT receptors, as well as an anxiolytic effect mediated by 5-HT receptors. De Gregorio D, McLaughlin RJ, Posa L, Ochoa-Sanchez R, Enns J, Lopez-Canul M, Aboud M, Maione S, Comai S, and Gobbi G. Cannabidiol modulates serotonergic transmission and reverses both allodynia and anxiety-like behavior in a model of neuropathic pain. PAIN 2019;160:36-150.
From an Alternative Medicine to a New Treatment for Refractory Epilepsies: Can Cannabidiol Follow the Same Path to Treat Neuropsychiatric Disorders?
Although cannabis has been known for ages as an "alternative medicine" to provide relief from seizures, pain, anxiety, and inflammation, there had always been a limited scientific review to prove and establish its use in clinics. Early studies carried out by Carlini's group in Brazil suggested that cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid present in , has anticonvulsant properties in animal models and reduced seizure frequency in limited human trials. Over the past few years, the potential use of cannabis extract in refractory epilepsy, including childhood epilepsies such as Dravet's syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome, has opened a new era of treating epileptic patients. Thus, a considerable number of pre-clinical and clinical studies have provided strong evidence that phytocannabinoids has anticonvulsant properties, as well as being promising in the treatment of different neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), addiction, neurodegenerative disorders and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Given the advances of cannabinoids, especially CBD, in the treatment of epilepsy, would the same expectation regarding the treatment of other neuropsychiatric disorders be possible? The present review highlights some contributions from Brazilian researchers and other studies reported elsewhere on the history, pre-clinical and clinical data underlying the use of cannabinoids for the already widespread treatment of refractory epilepsies and the possibility of use in the treatment of some neuropsychiatric disorders.
Hemp in Veterinary Medicine: From Feed to Drug
Hemp () is an angiosperm plant belonging to the family. Its cultivation dates back to centuries. It has always been cultivated due to the possibility of exploiting almost all the parts of the plant: paper, fabrics, ropes, bio-compounds with excellent insulating capacity, fuel, biodegradable plastic, antibacterial detergents, and food products, such as flour, oils, seeds, herbal teas, and beer, are indeed obtained from hemp. Hemp flowers have also always been used for their curative effects, as well as for recreational purposes due to their psychotropic effects. Cannabis contains almost 500 chemical compounds, such as phytocannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and macro-, and micro-elements, among others. When utilized as a food source, hemp shows excellent nutritional and health-promoting (nutraceutical) properties, mainly due to the high content in polyunsaturated fatty acids (especially those belonging to the ω-3 series), as well as in phenolic compounds, which seem effective in the prevention of common diseases such as gastrointestinal disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and others. Moreover, hemp oil and other oils (i.e., olive oil and medium-chain triglyceride-MCT-oil) enriched in CBD, as well as extracts from hemp dried flowers ( extracts), are authorized in some countries for therapeutic purposes as a second-choice approach (when conventional therapies have failed) for a certain number of clinical conditions such as pain and inflammation, epilepsy, anxiety disorders, nausea, emesis, and anorexia, among others. The present review will synthetize the beneficial properties of hemp and hemp derivatives in animal nutrition and therapeutics.
Safety and Tolerability of Cannabidiol in Parkinson Disease: An Open Label, Dose-Escalation Study
Cannabis is increasingly used in Parkinson disease (PD), despite little information regarding benefits and risks. To investigate the safety and tolerability of a range of doses of cannabidiol (CBD), a nonintoxicating component of cannabis, and it's effect on common parkinsonian symptoms. In this open-label study Coloradans with PD, substantial rest tremor, not using cannabis received plant-derived highly purified CBD (Epidiolex; 100 mg/mL). CBD was titrated from 5 to 20-25 mg/kg/day and maintained for 10-15 days. Fifteen participants enrolled, two were screen failures. All 13 participants (10 male), mean (SD) age 68.15 (6.05), with 6.1 (4.0) years of PD, reported adverse events, including diarrhea (85%), somnolence (69%), fatigue (62%), weight gain (31%), dizziness (23%), abdominal pain (23%), and headache, weight loss, nausea, anorexia, and increased appetite (each 5%). Adverse events were mostly mild; none serious. Elevated liver enzymes, mostly a cholestatic pattern, occurred in five (38.5%) participants on 20-25 mg/kg/day, only one symptomatic. Three (23%) dropped out due to intolerance. Ten (eight male) that completed the study had improvement in total and motor Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale scores of 7.70 (9.39, mean decrease 17.8%, =0.012) and 6.10 (6.64, mean decrease 24.7%, =0.004), respectively. Nighttime sleep and emotional/behavioral dyscontrol scores also improved significantly. CBD, in the form of Epidiolex, may be efficacious in PD, but the relatively high dose used in this study was associated with liver enzyme elevations. Randomized controlled trials are needed to investigate various forms of cannabis in PD.