SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS
Response to "Comment on 'Cannabinoids in dermatologic surgery'"
Analgesia in Athletes: A Review of Commonly Used Oral and Injectable Modalities
Pain is common among athletes at all levels and the treatment of pain can be a challenging and frustrating task. The team physician needs a fundamental knowledge of analgesic strategies as it relates to athletes. It is important to understand the mechanism of action, side effect profile/associated complications, incidence of and indications for use, as well as the controversies associated with the most common analgesic medications used in sports medicine. Several "in vogue" treatment modalities, including cannabidiol, are also becoming more commonly used and are worth discussion.
Social, psychological, and substance use characteristics of U.S. adults who use kratom: Initial findings from an online, crowdsourced study
Kratom, a plant that produces opioid-like effects, has gained popularity in the U.S. for self-treating symptoms of chronic pain, mood disorders, and substance-use disorders (SUDs). Most data on kratom are from surveys into which current kratom-using adults could self-select; such surveys may underrepresent people who have used kratom and chosen to stop. Available data also do not adequately assess important psychosocial factors surrounding kratom use. In this study, U.S. adults who reported past 6-month alcohol, opioid, and/or stimulant use ( = 1,670) were recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk between September and December 2020. Of the 1,510 evaluable respondents, 202 (13.4%) reported lifetime kratom use. Kratom-using adults, relative to others, were typically younger, male, unpartnered, without children, and had lower income. They had higher rates of chronic pain (31.7% vs. 21.9%, = .003), childhood adversity, anxiety, and depression ( < .001), and lower perceived social rank ( = .19, .02-.22) and socioeconomic status ( = .37 .16-.26). They also reported higher use rates for most substances (except alcohol); this included medically supervised and unsupervised use of prescription opioids and diverted opioid agonist therapy (OAT) medications. Most (83.2%) met diagnostic criteria for any past-year SUD. Those reporting kratom use were less likely to reside in an urban/suburban area. The strongest predictors of kratom use were use of other drugs: cannabidiol ( = 3.73), psychedelics ( = 3.39), and nonmedical prescription opioids ( = 1.72). Another strong predictor was lifetime OAT utilization ( = 2.31). Despite seemingly poorer psychosocial functioning and health among respondents reporting lifetime kratom use, use of other substances may be the strongest indicators of kratom use. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
Tackling the taboo: a sensible prescription for appropriate cannabis use in fibromyalgia
Cannabinoid Use Among Liver Transplant Recipients
The effect of cannabinoids on liver transplant outcomes is an area of active research. We aimed to investigate marijuana (MJ) and cannabidiol (CBD) use among liver transplant recipients at the University of Colorado Hospital (UCH), specifically prevalence, habits, and predictors of use. Liver transplant recipients followed at UCH with valid email addresses were sent an informed consent postcard and survey invitation. This exploratory survey was conducted using REDCap. IBM SPSS Statistics software was used for statistical analysis. Of 1227 recipients who were sent surveys, 538 people responded. On average, respondents were 59 years old, with 63.7% male and 81.7% White. Hepatitis C virus (HCV; 30.4%) and alcohol use (17.7%) were the most common etiologies of liver disease. Among respondents, 23.8% reported current MJ use. Methods of use included smoking (72.4%), ingestion (55.3%), and vaporization (31.7%). Top reasons for MJ use were recreation (56.5%), anxiety (54.8%), and pain (53.2%). Among respondents, 21.0% currently used CBD, usually in the form of creams or lotions (58.9%) and to relieve pain (84.9%) and anxiety (31.1%). In multivariable analysis, age (odds ratio [OR], 0.941; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.923-0.959; P < 0.001), diabetes mellitus (OR, 0.357; 95% CI, 0.171-0.746; P = 0.01), HCV cirrhosis (OR, 3.949; 95% CI, 2.281-6.835; P < 0.001), alcohol-related cirrhosis (OR, 2.101; 95% CI, 1.202-3.671; P = 0.01), and current tobacco use (OR, 2.918; 95% CI, 1.065-7.990; P = 0.04) were significant predictors of MJ use. Our study shows that cannabinoid use after liver transplant is common. MJ use is associated with decreasing age, alcohol-related and HCV cirrhosis, and tobacco use. Anxiety, pain, and recreation were top reasons for its use. Transplant teams should address reasons why their patients use MJ and CBD and develop programs to mitigate anxiety and pain after transplant. Further studies are needed to examine effects of cannabinoids on liver transplant outcomes.
Cannabis-Based Medicines and Medical Cannabis for Chronic Neuropathic Pain
Neuropathic pain represents a broad category of pain syndromes that include a wide variety of peripheral and central disorders. The overall prevalence of neuropathic pain in the general population is reported to be between 7 and 10%. Management of neuropathic pain presents an unmet clinical need, with less than 50% of patients achieving substantial pain relief with medications currently recommended such as pregabalin, gabapentin, duloxetine and various tricyclic antidepressants. It has been suggested that cannabis-based medicines (CbMs) and medical cannabis (MC) may be a treatment option for those with chronic neuropathic pain. CbMs/MC are available in different forms: licensed medications or medical products (plant-derived and/or synthetic products such as tetrahydrocannabinol or cannabidiol); magistral preparations of cannabis plant derivatives with defined molecular content such as dronabinol (tetrahydrocannabinol); and herbal cannabis with a defined content of tetrahydrocannabinol and/or cannabidiol, together with other active ingredients (phytocannabinoids other than cannabidiol/tetrahydrocannabinol, terpenes and flavonoids). The availability of different types of CbMs/MC varies between countries worldwide. Systematic reviews of available randomised controlled trials have stated low-quality evidence for CbMs and MC for chronic neuropathic pain. Depending on the studies included in the various quantitative syntheses, authors have reached divergent conclusions on the efficacy of CbMs/MC for chronic neuropathic pain (from not effective to a clinically meaningful benefit). Clinically relevant side effects of CbMs/MC, especially for central nervous system and psychiatric disorders, have been reported by some systematic reviews. Recommendations for the use of CbMs/MC for chronic neuropathic pain by various medical associations also differ, from negative recommendations, no recommendation possible, recommended as third-line therapy, or recommended as an alternative in selected cases failing standard therapies within a multimodal concept. After reading this paper, readers are invited to formulate their own conclusions regarding the potential benefits and harms of CbMs/MC for the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain.
The use of medical cannabis in pediatric palliative care: a case series
Medical cannabis may be a useful tool for managing treatment-resistant epilepsy and chronic pain, which affect many patients in pediatric palliative care (PPC); however, little evidence is available in this setting.
Substituting Cannabidiol for Opioids and Pain Medications Among Individuals With Fibromyalgia: A Large Online Survey
People report substituting cannabis for pain medications, but whether cannabidiol (CBD) is used similarly remains unknown. CBD products can be CBD alone (isolate), hemp extract (containing <0.3% Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC], other cannabinoids, and terpenes), or CBD-cannabis (containing >0.3% THC). In a secondary analysis from a cross-sectional survey, we examined substitution patterns among n = 878 individuals with fibromyalgia who currently used CBD. We sub-grouped participants by most commonly used CBD product (CBD isolate, hemp, CBD-cannabis, no preference) and whether they substituted CBD for medications. We investigated rationale for substituting, substitution-driven medication changes, CBD use patterns, and changes in pain-related symptoms (eg, sleep, anxiety). The study population was 93.6% female and 91.5% Caucasian, with an average age of 55.5 years. The majority (n = 632, 72.0%) reported substituting CBD products for medications, most commonly NSAIDs (59.0%), opioids (53.3%), gabapentanoids (35.0%), and benzodiazepines (23.1%). Most substituting participants reported decreasing or stopping use of these pain medications. The most common reasons for substitution were fewer side effects and better symptom management. Age, hemp products, past-year use of marijuana, and higher somatic burden were all associated with substituting (P's ≤ .05). Those who substituted reported larger improvements in health and pain than those who did not. Participants using CBD-cannabis reported significantly more substitutions than any other group (P's ≤ .001) and larger improvements in health, pain, memory, and sleep than other subgroups. This widespread naturalistic substitution for pain medications suggests the need for more rigorous study designs to examine this effect. PERSPECTIVE: This article shows that people with fibromyalgia are deliberately substituting CBD products for conventional pain medications despite the dearth of evidence suggesting CBD products may be helpful for fibromyalgia. CBD's medication-sparing and therapeutic potential should be examined in more rigorous study designs.
Medical cannabis and cannabis-based medicine show both potential efficacy and potential harms: Cross-sectional comparison with controls on self-rated and interviewer-rated outcomes within the Danish pilot program on medical cannabis
Denmark launched a pilot program of medical cannabis in January 2018. The aim was to establish whether medical cannabis and cannabis-based medicine (MC/CBM) were superior and safe compared to conventional treatment, regardless of the indications for which people received such medication.
Major Phytocannabinoids and Their Related Compounds: Should We Only Search for Drugs That Act on Cannabinoid Receptors?
The most important discoveries in pharmacology, such as certain classes of analgesics or chemotherapeutics, started from natural extracts which have been found to have effects in traditional medicine. Cannabis, traditionally used in Asia for the treatment of pain, nausea, spasms, sleep, depression, and low appetite, is still a good candidate for the development of new compounds. If initially all attention was directed to the endocannabinoid system, recent studies suggest that many of the clinically proven effects are based on an intrinsic chain of mechanisms that do not necessarily involve only cannabinoid receptors. Recent research has shown that major phytocannabinoids and their derivatives also interact with non-cannabinoid receptors such as vanilloid receptor 1, transient receptor ankyrin 1 potential, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma or glitazone receptor, G55 protein-coupled receptor, and nuclear receptor, producing pharmacological effects in diseases such as Alzheimer's, epilepsy, depression, neuropathic pain, cancer, and diabetes. Nonetheless, further studies are needed to elucidate the precise mechanisms of these compounds. Structure modulation of phytocannabinoids, in order to improve pharmacological effects, should not be limited to the exploration of cannabinoid receptors, and it should target other courses of action discovered through recent research.
Cannabidiol-based natural health products for companion animals: Recent advances in the management of anxiety, pain, and inflammation
Recent advances in cannabidiol (CBD) use in canines and felines for anxiety management, pain management, and anti-inflammatory effects were reviewed using a literature search conducted with the following keywords: CBD, anxiety, inflammation, pain, dogs, cats, and companion animals. For decades, research on CBD has been hindered due to the status of cannabis (C. sativa L.) as an illicit drug. Limited safety data show that CBD is well-tolerated in dogs, with insufficient information on the safety profile of CBD in cats. Upon oral supplementation of CBD, elevation in liver enzymes was observed for both dogs and cats, and pharmacokinetics of CBD are different in the two species. There is a significant gap in the literature on the therapeutic use of CBD in cats, with no feline data on anxiety, pain, and inflammation management. There is evidence that chronic osteoarthritic pain in dogs can be reduced by supplementation with CBD. Furthermore, experiments are required to better understand whether CBD has an influence on noise-induced fear and anxiolytic response. Preliminary evidence exists to support the analgesic properties of CBD in treating chronic canine osteoarthritis; however, there are inter- and intra-species differences in pharmacokinetics, tolerance, dosage, and safety of CBD. Therefore, to validate the anxiety management, pain management, and anti-inflammatory efficacy of CBD, it is essential to conduct systematic, randomized, and controlled trials. Further, the safety and efficacious dose of CBD in companion animals warrants investigation.
The current understanding of the benefits, safety, and regulation of cannabidiol in consumer products
The popularity of cannabidiol (CBD) in consumer products is soaring as consumers are using CBD for general health and well-being as well as to seek relief from ailments especially pain, inflammation, anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders. However, there are limited data currently in the public domain that provide support for these benefits. By contrast, a significant amount of safety evaluation data for CBD have been obtained recently from pre-clinical and clinical studies of the CBD therapeutic Epidiolex®. Yet some key data gaps concerning the safe use of CBD still remain. Furthermore, current regulations on CBD use in consumer products remain uncertain and often conflict between the state and federal level. In light of the rapidly expanding popularity of CBD-related products in the marketplace, here we review the current understanding of the benefits, safety, and regulations surrounding CBD in consumer products. This review does not advocate for or against the use of CBD in consumer products. Rather this review seeks to assess the state-of-the-science on the health effects and safety of CBD, to identify critical knowledge gaps for future studies, and to raise the awareness of the current regulations that govern CBD use in consumer products.
Rates of self-directed perioperative cannabidiol use in patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty
To evaluate the prevalence of self-directed cannabidiol (CBD) use in patients with end-stage degenerative hip and knee arthritis who underwent total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty. Anonymous surveys for 109 patients were completed at 6 weeks follow-up after either total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty at a single tertiary care US orthopedic hospital. Within the perioperative window encompassing both preoperative and postoperative periods, 22% (95% CI: 14-30%) of patients used CBD. There was no difference in pain satisfaction between patients who used CBD and patients who did not. Given high rates of self-directed perioperative CBD use and the mixed body of evidence, further research is needed to better understand whether CBD is safe and effective.
Cost-Effectiveness of Medicinal Cannabis for Management of Refractory Symptoms Associated With Chronic Conditions: A Systematic Review of Economic Evaluations
Although there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that cannabinoids may relieve symptoms of some illnesses, they are relatively high-cost therapies compared with illicit growth and supply. This article aimed to comprehensively review economic evaluations of medicinal cannabis for alleviating refractory symptoms associated with chronic conditions.
Adjunctive Management of Opioid Withdrawal with the Nonopioid Medication Cannabidiol
Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a major public health crisis worldwide. Patients with OUD inevitably experience withdrawal symptoms when they attempt to taper down on their current opioid use, abstain completely from opioids, or attempt to transition to certain medications for opioid use disorder. Acute opioid withdrawal can be debilitating and include a range of symptoms such as anxiety, pain, insomnia, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Whereas acute opioid withdrawal only lasts for 1-2 weeks, protracted withdrawal symptoms can persist for months after the cessation of opioids. Insufficient management of opioid withdrawal often leads to devastating results including treatment failure, relapse, and overdose. Thus, there is a critical need for cost-effective, nonopioid medications, with minimal side effects to help in the medical management of opioid withdrawal syndrome. We discuss the potential consideration of cannabidiol (CBD), a nonintoxicating component of the cannabis plant, as an treatment in managing the opioid withdrawal syndrome. A review of the literature was performed using keywords related to CBD and opioid withdrawal syndrome in PubMed and Google Scholar. A total of 144 abstracts were identified, and 41 articles were selected where CBD had been evaluated in clinical studies relevant to opioid withdrawal. CBD has been reported to have several therapeutic properties including anxiolytic, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, anti-emetic, analgesic, as well as reduction of cue-induced craving for opioids, all of which are highly relevant to opioid withdrawal syndrome. In addition, CBD has been shown in several clinical trials to be a well-tolerated with no significant adverse effects, even when co-administered with a potent opioid agonist. Growing evidence suggests that CBD could potentially be added to the standard opioid detoxification regimen to mitigate acute or protracted opioid withdrawal-related symptoms. However, most existing findings are either based on preclinical studies and/or small clinical trials. Well-designed, prospective, randomized-controlled studies evaluating the effect of CBD on managing opioid withdrawal symptoms are warranted.
The emerging role of cannabidiol (CBD) products; a survey exploring the public's use and perceptions of CBD
The market value of cannabidiol (CBD) is growing as people seek holistic ways of managing their health. The aim of this study was to explore the public's perceptions and use of CBD products, including where products were sourced, knowledge transfer and opinions on quality, safety and efficacy of CBD products. An online questionnaire was distributed via social and professional networks, in addition to face-to-face data collection days, which employed convenience and snowball sampling methods. A total of 597 participant responses were analysed, of which 10.9% (n = 65) claimed to use CBD products for a range of ailments, including anxiety and pain. CBD products were bought from healthcare stores, vape stores, pharmacies and online. Of those who did not personally use CBD (n = 532), 35% claimed they would like to try it. A positive attitude towards the safety and efficacy of CBD was attributed to CBD being a natural product. The study highlighted that the public continue to seek natural alternatives to supplement and maintain their health; hence, the popularity of CBD continues to rise. The lack of clinical evidence and regulation of CBD needs to be addressed to facilitate safe and effective use of CBD.
Cannabinoid tetrad effects of oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) in male and female rats: sex, dose-effects and time course evaluations
The legalization of medicinal use of Cannabis sativa in most US states and the removal of hemp from the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) controlled substances act has resulted in a proliferation of products containing Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) for oral consumption (e.g., edibles, oils, and tinctures) that are being used for recreational and medicinal purposes.
Analgesic Potential of Terpenes Derived from
Pain prevalence among adults in the United States has increased 25% over the past two decades, resulting in high health-care costs and impacts to patient quality of life. In the last 30 years, our understanding of pain circuits and (intra)cellular mechanisms has grown exponentially, but this understanding has not yet resulted in improved therapies. Options for pain management are limited. Many analgesics have poor efficacy and are accompanied by severe side effects such as addiction, resulting in a devastating opioid abuse and overdose epidemic. These problems have encouraged scientists to identify novel molecular targets and develop alternative pain therapeutics. Increasing preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that cannabis has several beneficial pharmacological activities, including pain relief. contains more than 500 chemical compounds, with two principle phytocannabinoids, Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Beyond phytocannabinoids, more than 150 terpenes have been identified in different cannabis chemovars. Although the predominant cannabinoids, Δ-THC and CBD, are thought to be the primary medicinal compounds, terpenes including the monoterpenes -myrcene, -pinene, limonene, and linalool, as well as the sesquiterpenes -caryophyllene and -humulene may contribute to many pharmacological properties of cannabis, including anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects. The aim of this review is to summarize our current knowledge about terpene compounds in cannabis and to analyze the available scientific evidence for a role of cannabis-derived terpenes in modern pain management. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Decades of research have improved our knowledge of cannabis polypharmacy and contributing phytochemicals, including terpenes. Reform of the legal status for cannabis possession and increased availability (medicinal and recreational) have resulted in cannabis use to combat the increasing prevalence of pain and may help to address the opioid crisis. Better understanding of the pharmacological effects of cannabis and its active components, including terpenes, may assist in identifying new therapeutic approaches and optimizing the use of cannabis and/or terpenes as analgesic agents.
Adverse events of recreational cannabis use reported to the French addictovigilance network (2012-2017)
To describe the adverse events (AEs) of recreational cannabis use in France between 2012 and 2017.
Cannabidiol effectively reverses mechanical and thermal allodynia, hyperalgesia, and anxious behaviors in a neuropathic pain model: Possible role of CB1 and TRPV1 receptors
The incidence of chronic pain is high in the general population and it is closely related to anxiety disorders, which promote negative effects on the quality of life. The cannabinoid system has essential participation in the pain sensitivity circuit. In this perspective, cannabidiol (CBD) is considered a promising strategy for treating neuropathic pain. Our study aimed to evaluate the effects of sub-chronic systemic treatment with CBD (0.3, 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg, i.p.) in male in rats submitted to chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve (CCI) or not (SHAM) and assessed in nociceptive tests (von Frey, acetone, and hot plate, three days CBD's treatment) and in the open field test (OFT, two days CBD's treatment). We performed a screening immunoreactivity of CB1 and TRPV1 receptors in cortical and limbic regions tissues, which were collected after 1.5 h of behavioral tests on the 24th experimental day. This study presents a dose-response curve to understand better the effects of low doses (3 mg/kg) on CBD's antiallodynic and anxiolytic effects. Also, low doses of CBD were able to (1) reverse mechanical and thermal allodynia (cold) and hyperalgesia, (2) reverse anxious behaviors (reduction of the % of grooming and freezing time, and increase of the % of center time in the OFT) induced by chronic pain. The peripheral neuropathy promoted the increase in the expression of CB1 and TRPV1 receptors in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), anterior insular cortex (AIC), basolateral amygdala (BLA), dorsal hippocampus (DH), and ventral hippocampus (VH). CBD potentiated this effect in the ACC, AIC, BLA, DH, and VH regions. These results provide substantial evidence of the role of the ACC-AIC-BLA corticolimbic circuit, and BLA-VH for pain regulation. These results can be clinically relevant since they contribute to the evidence of CBD's beneficial effects on treating chronic pain and associated comorbidities such as anxiety.
Medicinal cannabis in the treatment of chronic pain
Chronic pain is a major health issue, adversely affecting millions of Australians and costing billions of dollars annually. Current pharmaceutical treatments may be limiting, and in some cases ineffective, while carrying substantial liabilities. Medicinal cannabis is an increasingly popular, albeit controversial, alternative.
Medical Cannabis for Headache Pain: a Primer for Clinicians
Public acceptance of Cannabis sativa L. (cannabis) as a therapeutic option grows despite lags in both research and clinician familiarity. Cannabis-whether as a medical, recreational, or illicit substance-is and has been commonly used by patients. With ongoing decriminalization efforts, decreased perception of harms, and increased use of cannabis in the treatment of symptoms and disease, it is critical for clinicians to understand the rationale for specific therapies and their medical and practical implications for patients. In view of the opioid crisis, overall patient dissatisfaction, and lack of adherence to current chronic pain and headache therapies, this review provides up-to-date knowledge on cannabis as a potential treatment option for headache pain.
Perspectives of pediatric oncologists and palliative care physicians on the therapeutic use of cannabis in children with cancer
Children with cancer are increasingly using cannabis therapeutically.
Safety of Medical Cannabis in Neuropathic Chronic Pain Management
Products derived from the plant are widely appreciated for their analgesic properties and are employed for the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain. Only nabiximols, a product composed of two extracts containing similar percentages of the two cannabinoids cannabidiol and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, is approved by regulatory authorities for neuropathic pain and spasticity due to multiple sclerosis in many European countries and Canada. It is also included in pharmacovigilance systems monitoring the occurrence of adverse drug reactions. However, it is not the same for the great variety of other cannabis preparations widely used for medical purposes. This creates a situation characterized by insufficient knowledge of the safety of cannabis preparations and the impossibility of establishing a correct risk-benefit profile for their medical use in the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain. With the aim to explore this issue more deeply, we collected data on adverse reactions from published clinical studies reporting the use of cannabis for neuropathic relief.
Computational Approach Reveals Pronociceptive Potential of Cannabidiol in Osteoarthritis: Role of Transient Receptor Potential Channels
Systems pharmacology employs computational and mathematical methods to study the network of interactions a drug may have within complex biological pathways. These tools are well suited for research on multitarget drugs, such as natural compounds, in diseases with complex etiologies, such as osteoarthritis (OA). The present study focuses on cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive constituent of cannabis, targeting over 60 distinct molecular targets as a potential treatment for OA, a degenerative joint disease leading to chronic pain with a neuropathic component. We successfully identified molecular targets of CBD that were relevant in the context of OA treatment with both beneficial and detrimental effects. Our findings were confirmed by in vivo and molecular studies. A key role of PPARγ in mediating the therapeutic potential of CBD was revealed, whereas upregulation of multiple transient receptor potential channels demasked CBD-induced heat hyperalgesia. Our findings pave the way for novel CBD-based therapy with improved therapeutic potential but also encourage the use of bioinformatic tools to predict the mechanism of action of CBD in different conditions. We have also created an accessible web tool for analogous analysis of CBD pharmacology in the context of any disease of interest and made it publicly available.
The Effect of Cannabis-Based Medicine on Neuropathic Pain and Spasticity in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Spinal Cord Injury: Study Protocol of a National Multicenter Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Disease or acquired damage to the central nervous system frequently causes disabling spasticity and central neuropathic pain (NP), both of which are frequent in multiple sclerosis (MS) and spinal cord injury (SCI). Patients with MS and SCI often request treatment with cannabis-based medicine (CBM). However, knowledge about effects, side effects, choice of active cannabinoids (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD) alone or in combination), and doses of CBM remains limited. Using a double-blind, parallel design in a national multicenter cohort, this study examines the effect of CBM on spasticity and NP. Patients are randomized to treatment with capsules containing either THC, CBD, THC and CBD, or placebo. Primary endpoints are patient-reported pain and spasticity on a numerical rating scale. Other endpoints include quality of life and sleep, depression and anxiety, and relief of pain and spasticity. Side-effects of CBM are described. In a sub-study, the pharmacodynamics (PD) and pharmacokinetics (PK) of oral capsule CBM are examined. We expect that the study will contribute to the literature by providing information on the effects and side-effects of CBD, THC, and the combination of the two for central neuropathic pain and spasticity. Furthermore, we will describe the PD/PK of THC and CBD in a patient population.
Survey of Patients Employing Cannabigerol-Predominant Cannabis Preparations: Perceived Medical Effects, Adverse Events, and Withdrawal Symptoms
Cannabigerol (CBG), and its precursor before decarboxylation, cannabigerolic acid is sometimes labeled the "mother of all cannabinoids." The purpose of the present study was to investigate reasons for use and self-reported therapeutic effects in CBG-predominant cannabis users. Usage patterns and adverse effects, including withdrawal symptoms were also explored. Cannabidiol-predominant cannabis users were recruited online to complete an online survey assessing CBG use patterns, conditions treated with CBG-predominant cannabis (containing >50% CBG), perceived efficacy, associated adverse events, and withdrawal symptoms. One hundred twenty-seven eligible participants (U.S. residents ages 21+ who reported using CBG-predominant cannabis in the past 6 months) completed the survey. Most of the samples (=65; 51.2%) reported use of CBG-predominant products solely for medical purposes (=46; 36.2% reported use for medical and recreational purposes; =8; 6.3% reported recreational use only, and =8 were missing). The most common conditions the complete sample reported using CBG to treat were anxiety (51.2%), chronic pain (40.9%), depression (33.1%), and insomnia/disturbed sleep (30.7%). Efficacy was highly rated, with the majority reporting their conditions were "very much improved" or "much improved" by CBG. Furthermore, 73.9% claimed superiority of CBG-predominant cannabis over conventional medicines for chronic pain, 80% for depression, 73% for insomnia, and 78.3% for anxiety. Forty-four percent of CBG-predominant cannabis users reported no adverse events, with 16.5% noting dry mouth, 15% sleepiness, 11.8% increased appetite, and 8.7% dry eyes. Around 84.3% reported no withdrawal symptoms, with sleep difficulties representing the most frequently endorsed withdrawal symptom (endorsed by two respondents). This is the first patient survey of CBG-predominant cannabis use to date, and the first to document self-reported efficacy of CBG-predominant products, particularly for anxiety, chronic pain, depression, and insomnia. Most respondents reported greater efficacy of CBG-predominant cannabis over conventional pharmacotherapy, with a benign adverse event profile and negligible withdrawal symptoms. This study establishes that humans are employing CBG and suggests that CBG-predominant cannabis-based medicines should be studied in randomized controlled trials.
The Current and Potential Application of Medicinal Cannabis Products in Dentistry
Oral and dental diseases are a major global burden, the most common non-communicable diseases (NCDs), and may even affect an individual's general quality of life and health. The most prevalent dental and oral health conditions are tooth decay (otherwise referred to as dental caries/cavities), oral cancers, gingivitis, periodontitis, periodontal (gum) disease, Noma, oro-dental trauma, oral manifestations of HIV, sensitive teeth, cracked teeth, broken teeth, and congenital anomalies such as cleft lip and palate. Herbs have been utilized for hundreds of years in traditional Chinese, African and Indian medicine and even in some Western countries, for the treatment of oral and dental conditions including but not limited to dental caries, gingivitis and toothaches, dental pulpitis, halitosis (bad breath), mucositis, sore throat, oral wound infections, and periodontal abscesses. Herbs have also been used as plaque removers (chew sticks), antimicrobials, analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents, and antiseptics. L. in particular has been utilized in traditional Asian medicine for tooth-pain management, prevention of dental caries and reduction in gum inflammation. The distribution of cannabinoid (CB) receptors in the mouth suggest that the endocannabinoid system may be a target for the treatment of oral and dental diseases. Most recently, interest has been geared toward the use of Cannabidiol (CBD), one of several secondary metabolites produced by L. CBD is a known anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anxiolytic, anti-microbial and anti-cancer agent, and as a result, may have therapeutic potential against conditions such burning mouth syndrome, dental anxiety, gingivitis, and possible oral cancer. Other major secondary metabolites of L. such as terpenes and flavonoids also share anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anxiolytic and anti-microbial properties and may also have dental and oral applications. This review will investigate the potential of secondary metabolites of L. in the treatment of dental and oral diseases.
State of the science: cannabis and cannabinoids in palliative medicine-the potential
Cannabinoids are chemicals derived naturally from the cannabis plant or are synthetically manufactured. They interact directly with cannabinoid receptors or share chemical similarity with endocannabinoids (or both). Within palliative medicine, cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) may modulate some cancer symptoms: appetite, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, and mood, pain and sleep disorders. Opioid and cannabinoid receptors have overlapping neuroanatomical receptor distribution, particularly at the dorsal horn, dorsal striatum and locus coeruleus. They have a favourable safety profile compared with opioids, and cannabis-based medicines help chronic pain. While cannabidiol (CBD) has anti-inflammatory properties, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the psychoactive substance for issues such as mood and sleep. Nabiximols (Sativex), a CBD:THC combination, is Food and Drug Administration approved for some multiple sclerosis symptoms and epilepsy. There has been a swift societal evolution in attitudes about use of cannabis and cannabinoid medicines for chronic pain. In the USA, 33 states have now legalised prescription-based medical cannabis for several medical conditions; Canada has had legislation since 2001 authorising medical use. The European Union (EU) recently declared all EU citizens must have access to medical cannabis over the next 4 years. The integration into medicine and routine clinical use of cannabis is fraught with information gaps, regulatory issues and scarcity of research. Each patient should have a comprehensive assessment and risk-benefit discussion before any cannabis-based intervention to avoid possible complications such as hallucinations, psychosis and potential cardiac harm.
Safety and Tolerability of Transdermal Cannabidiol Gel in Children With Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathies: A Nonrandomized Controlled Trial
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) are the most severe group of drug-resistant epilepsies. Alternatives to oral therapies are urgently needed to reduce seizures and improve developmental outcomes and comorbidities in this medically complex population.
Cannabis and Athletic Performance
Cannabis is widely used for both recreational and medicinal purposes on a global scale. There is accumulating interest in the use of cannabis and its constituents for athletic recovery, and in some instances, performance. Amidst speculation of potential beneficial applications, the effects of cannabis and its two most abundant constituents, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), remain largely un-investigated. The purpose of this review is to critically evaluate the literature describing the effects of whole cannabis, THC, and CBD, on athletic performance and recovery. While investigations of whole cannabis and THC have generally shown either null or detrimental effects on exercise performance in strength and aerobic-type activities, studies of sufficient rigor and validity to conclusively declare ergogenic or ergolytic potential in athletes are lacking. The ability of cannabis and THC to perturb cardiovascular homeostasis warrants further investigation regarding mechanisms by which performance may be affected across different exercise modalities and energetic demands. In contrast to cannabis and THC, CBD has largely been scrutinized for its potential to aid in recovery. The beneficial effects of CBD on sleep quality, pain, and mild traumatic brain injury may be of particular interest to certain athletes. However, research in each of these respective areas has yet to be thoroughly investigated in athletic populations. Elucidating the effects of whole cannabis, THC, and CBD is pertinent for both researchers and practitioners given the widespread use of these products, and their potential to interact with athletes' performance and recovery.
A clinician survey of use assessment, documentation, and education about cannabis in persons with cystic fibrosis
To help open the clinician dialogue regarding cannabis use in persons with cystic fibrosis (CF) in the United States, we aimed to describe current practices of use assessment and documentation processes related to cannabis.
Cannabidiol in the prelimbic cortex modulates the comorbid condition between the chronic neuropathic pain and depression-like behaviour in rats: The role of medial prefrontal cortex 5-HT and CB receptors
The prelimbic division (PrL) of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a cerebral division that is putatively implicated in the chronic pain and depression. We investigated the activity of PrL cortex neurons in Wistar rats that underwent chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve and were further subjected to the forced swimming (FS) test and mechanical allodynia (by von Frey test). The effect of blockade of synapses with cobalt chloride (CoCl), and the treatment of the PrL cortex with cannabidiol (CBD), the CB receptor antagonist AM251 and the 5-HT receptor antagonist WAY-100635 were also investigated. Our results showed that CoCl decreased the time spent immobile during the FS test but did not alter mechanical allodynia. CBD (at 15, 30 and 60 nmol) in the PrL cortex also decreased the frequency and duration of immobility; however, only the dose of 30 nmol of CBD attenuated mechanical allodynia in rats with chronic NP. AM251 and WAY-100635 in the PrL cortex attenuated the antidepressive and analgesic effect caused by CBD but did not alter the immobility and the mechanical allodynia when administered alone. These data show that the PrL cortex is part of the neural substrate underlying the comorbidity between NP and depression. Also, the previous blockade of CB cannabinoid receptors and 5-HT serotonergic receptors in the PrL cortex attenuated the antidepressive and analgesics effect of the CBD. They also suggest that CBD could be a potential medicine for the treatment of depressive and pain symptoms in patients with chronic NP/depression comorbidity.
Cannabidiol has therapeutic potential for myofascial pain in female and male parkinsonian rats
The musculoskeletal orofacial pain is a complex symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD) resulting in stomatognathic system dysfunctions aggravated by the disease rigidity and postural instability. We tested the effect of cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotomimetic constituent of Cannabis sativa, in PD-related myofascial pain. Wistar adult female and male rats orofacial allodynic and hyperalgesic responses were tested by Von Frey and formalin tests, before and 21 days past 6-OHDA lesion. Algesic response was tested after masseter muscle injection of CBD (10, 50, 100 μg in 10 μL) or vehicle. Males compared to females in all estrous cycles' phases presented reduced orofacial allodynia and hyperalgesia. According to the estrous cycle's phases, females presented distinct orofacial nociceptive responses, being the estrus phase well-chosen for nociceptive analysis after 6-OHDA lesion (phase with fewer hormone alterations and adequate length). Dopaminergic neuron lesion decreased mechanical and inflammatory nociceptive thresholds in females and males in a higher proportion in females. CBD local treatment reduced the increased orofacial allodynia and hyperalgesia, in males and females. The female rats were more sensitive to CBD effect considering allodynia, responding to the lowest dose. Although females and males respond to the effect of three doses of CBD in the formalin test, males showed a superior reduction in the hyperalgesic response. These results indicate that hemiparkinsonian female in the estrus phase and male answer differently to the different doses of CBD therapy and nociceptive tests. CBD therapy is effective for parkinsonism-induced orofacial nociception.
Approved cannabinoids for medical purposes - Comparative systematic review and meta-analysis for sleep and appetite
Cannabinoids are used for numerous disease indications. However, cannabinoids can also produce adverse effects; for example, they can disturb physiological functions such as sleep and appetite. The medical use of cannabinoids refers to a wide variety of preparations and products. Approved cannabinoid products include dronabinol ((-)-trans-Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), nabilone (a THC analogue), and cannabidiol (CBD) that differ in their pharmacology and may thus have different adverse effects on sleep and appetite.
Cannabidiol microinjection into the nucleus accumbens attenuated nociceptive behaviors in an animal model of tonic pain
Cannabidiol, the major non-psychoactive constituent of Cannabis, has attracted much attention as a therapeutic agent for intractable chronic pain in many conditions. Nucleus accumbens (NAc) as a major site of action of cannabinoids is one of the main mediators of several analgesic agents especially in the persistent pain condition. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of cannabidiol microinjection into the NAc on the modulation of nociception induced by formalin injection into the rat's paw. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 220-250 g were underwent stereotaxic surgery for unilateral (right or left side) cannula placement into the NAc. After one week recovery period, intra-NAc administration of the cannabidiol or its vehicle, DMSO was performed in a volume of 0.5 µl, five minutes before the formalin test. The formalin test was performed using 50 µl injection of formalin (2.5%) into the plantar surface of the rat's hind paw. Intra-accumbal administration of cannabidiol attenuated the nociceptive responses during the early and late phases of the formalin test in a dose-dependent manner. However, the antinociceptive effect of cannabidiol was significantly higher in the late phase of the formalin test than that in the early phase. Therefore, a non-psychoactive cannabinoid, cannabidiol may be developed as therapeutic agents in conditions, such as persistent inflammatory pain for which primary treatments are insufficient or not possible.
An initial analysis of the UK Medical Cannabis Registry: Outcomes analysis of first 129 patients
Cannabis-based medicinal products (CBMPs) are prescribed with increased frequency, despite a paucity of high-quality randomized controlled trials. The aim of this study is to analyze the early outcomes of the first series of patients prescribed CBMPs in the UK with respect to effects on health-related quality of life and clinical safety.
Values and preferences towards medical cannabis among people living with chronic pain: a mixed-methods systematic review
To explore values and preferences towards medical cannabis among people living with chronic pain.
Differential Interactions of Selected Phytocannabinoids with Human CYP2D6 Polymorphisms
Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is primarily expressed in the liver and in the central nervous system. It is known to be highly polymorphic in nature. It metabolizes several endogenous substrates such as anandamide (AEA). Concomitantly, it is involved in phase 1 metabolism of several antidepressants, antipsychotics, and other drugs. Research in the field of phytocannabinoids (pCBs) has recently accelerated owing to their legalization and increasing medicinal use for pain and inflammation. The primary component of cannabis is THC, which is well-known for its psychotropic effects. Since CYP2D6 is an important brain and liver P450 and is known to be inhibited by CBD, we investigated the interactions of four important highly prevalent CYP2D6 polymorphisms with selected phytocannabinoids (CBD, THC, CBDV, THCV, CBN, CBG, CBC, β-carophyllene) that are rapidly gaining popularity. We show that there is differential binding of CYP2D6*17 to pCBs as compared to WT CYP2D6. We also perform a more detailed comparison of WT and *17 CYP2D6, which reveals the possible regulation of AEA metabolism by CBD. Furthermore, we use molecular dynamics to delineate the mechanism of this binding, inhibition, and regulation. Taken together, we have found that the interactions of CYP2D6 with pCBs vary by polymorphism and by specific pCB class.
Contribution of the Adenosine 2A Receptor to Behavioral Effects of Tetrahydrocannabinol, Cannabidiol and PECS-101
The cannabis-derived molecules, ∆ tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), are both of considerable therapeutic interest for a variety of purposes, including to reduce pain and anxiety and increase sleep. In addition to their other pharmacological targets, both THC and CBD are competitive inhibitors of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 (ENT-1), a primary inactivation mechanism for adenosine, and thereby increase adenosine signaling. The goal of this study was to examine the role of adenosine A2A receptor activation in the effects of intraperitoneally administered THC alone and in combination with CBD or PECS-101, a 4'-fluorinated derivative of CBD, in the cannabinoid tetrad, elevated plus maze (EPM) and marble bury assays. Comparisons between wild-type (WT) and A2AR knock out (A2AR-KO) mice were made. The cataleptic effects of THC were diminished in A2AR-KO; no other THC behaviors were affected by A2AR deletion. CBD (5 mg/kg) potentiated the cataleptic response to THC (5 mg/kg) in WT but not A2AR-KO. Neither CBD nor THC alone affected EPM behavior; their combination produced a significant increase in open/closed arm time in WT but not A2AR-KO. Both THC and CBD reduced the number of marbles buried in A2AR-KO but not WT mice. Like CBD, PECS-101 potentiated the cataleptic response to THC in WT but not A2AR-KO mice. PECS-101 also reduced exploratory behavior in the EPM in both genotypes. These results support the hypothesis that CBD and PECS-101 can potentiate the cataleptic effects of THC in a manner consistent with increased endogenous adenosine signaling.
Cannabinoid Use in a Tertiary Headache Clinic: A Cross-Sectional Survey
This study seeks to determine the prevalence and nature of cannabis use in patients with headache in a tertiary headache clinic and to explore patients' empiric experience in using cannabinoids therapeutically.
Medical Cannabis, Headaches, and Migraines: A Review of the Current Literature
Cannabis has been long used since ancient times for both medical and recreational use. Past research has shown that cannabis can be indicated for symptom management disorders, including cancer, chronic pain, headaches, migraines, and psychological disorders (anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder). Active ingredients in cannabis that modulate patients' perceptions of their conditions include Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), flavonoids, and terpenes. These compounds work to produce effects within the endocannabinoid system to decrease nociception and decrease symptom frequency. Research within the United States of America is limited to date due to cannabis being classified as a schedule one drug per the Drug Enforcement Agency. Few anecdotal studies have found a limited relationship between cannabis use and migraine frequency. The purpose of the review article is to document the validity of how medical cannabis can be utilized as an alternative therapy for migraine management. Thirty-four relevant articles were selected after a thorough screening process using PubMed and Google Scholar databases. The following keywords were used: "Cannabis," "Medical Marijuana," "Headache," "Cannabis and Migraine," "Cannabis and Headache." This literature study demonstrates that medical cannabis use decreases migraine duration and frequency and headaches of unknown origin. Patients suffering from migraines and related conditions may benefit from medical cannabis therapy due to its convenience and efficacy.
Cellular distribution of cannabinoid-related receptors TRPV1, PPAR-gamma, GPR55 and GPR3 in the equine cervical dorsal root ganglia
The activation of cannabinoid and cannabinoid-related receptors by endogenous, plant-derived or synthetic cannabinoids may exert beneficial effects on pain perception. Of the cannabinoids contained in Cannabis sativa, cannabidiol (CBD) does not produce psychotropic effects and seems to represent a molecule having great therapeutic potential. Cannabidiol acts on a great number of cannabinoid and cannabinoid-related G-protein-coupled receptors and ionotropic receptors which have, to date, been understudied in veterinary medicine particularly in equine medicine.
Cannabidiol treatment in hand osteoarthritis and psoriatic arthritis: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial
Cannabidiol (CBD) is increasingly used as analgesic medication even though the recent International Association for the Study of Pain presidential task force on cannabis and cannabinoid analgesia found a lack of trials examining CBD for pain management. The present trial examines CBD as add on analgesic therapy in patients with hand osteoarthritis or psoriatic arthritis experiencing moderate pain intensity despite therapy. Using a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled design, patients received synthetic CBD 20-30mg or placebo daily for 12 weeks. Primary outcome was pain intensity during the last 24 hours (0-100mm); safety outcomes were percentage of patients experiencing adverse events and a characterization of serious adverse events. Explorative outcomes included change in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ-DI).One hundred and thirty-six patients were randomized 129 were included in the primary analysis. Between group difference in pain intensity at 12 weeks was 0.23mm (95%CI -9.41 to 9.90; p = 0.96). 22% patients receiving CBD and 21% receiving placebo experienced a reduction in pain intensity of more than 30mm. We found neither clinically nor statistically significant effect of CBD for pain intensity in patients with hand osteoarthritis and psoriatic arthritis when compared to placebo. Additionally, no statistically significant effects were found on sleep quality, depression, anxiety, or pain catastrophizing scores.
The Lived Experience of Managing HIV and Chronic Pain: Qualitative Interviews with Patients and Healthcare Providers
People living with HIV (PLWH) experience higher rates of comorbid chronic pain conditions compared to the general population. Managing HIV and chronic pain, two stigmatized health conditions, can exacerbate physical and psychological suffering. The current qualitative study was designed to increase our understanding of the experience of living with HIV and chronic pain. Twenty participants were recruited from a hospital-based immunology center to participate in individual in-depth qualitative interviews. The interviews focused on the experience of living with (or managing) chronic pain for PLWH. All interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and double-coded. Several themes emerged from our applied thematic analysis of the transcripts. The primary theme was that pain remained poorly managed among PLWH. Patients engaged in a variety of pain management strategies and described benefits from both traditional pain management interventions (e.g., pharmacology, physical therapy) as well as non-traditional approaches (e.g., medical marijuana, cannabidiol products, and spirituality). Other themes that emerged included barriers related to health insurance and the need to validate the patient pain experience. PLWH and chronic pain described compounding effects of managing two chronic health conditions, including perceived immune system over-activation, heightened awareness of illness, and negative mindset. More research is needed to improve care for those managing these often co-occurring health conditions.
Prevalence of Cannabidiol Use in Patients With Spine Complaints: Results of an Anonymous Survey
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a cannabis derivative that has been popularized as a medicinal product with analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Given the anecdotal observations that several patients have reported use of CBD for spine-related pain, this study was designed to characterize CBD consumption patterns and perceived effects in patients with spine-related complaints.
Oral cannabinoid preparations for the treatment of chronic migraine: a retrospective study
To explore the effectiveness and safety of 3 oral cannabinoid preparations (FM2®, Bedrocan® and Bediol®) in the treatment of chronic migraine.
The Effectiveness of Cannabis and Cannabis Derivatives in Treating Lower Back Pain in the Aged Population: A Systematic Review
Cannabis is increasingly used in the management of pain, though minimal research exists to support its use since approval. Reduction in stigma has led to a growing interest in pharmaceutical cannabinoids as a possible treatment for lower back pain (LBP). The objective of this review was to assess the role and efficacy of cannabis and its derivatives in the management of LBP and compile global data related to the role of cannabis in the management of LBP in an aging population.
The Role of Cannabis, Cannabidiol and Other Cannabinoids in Chronic Pain. The Perspective of Physicians
Currently, there is a renewed interest in treatments with medical cannabis and cannabinoids. Based on an increasing number of publications over the last decades that permitted new insights into mechanisms, efficacy and safety of cannabinoids, the use of cannabinergic medications is authorised in an increasing number of European and non-European countries. The alleviation of chronic, painful conditions is, since thousands of years, one of the primary reasons for the use of cannabis. Depending on the country, a wide range of medicinal cannabis preparations are available:ranging from defined cultivars of medical cannabis, mainly varying in their THC:CBD ratio, that are inhaled or taken as whole plant extracts,to highly purified single cannabinoids, such as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD),or mixtures of two enriched extracts, standardised to a 1:1 ratio of THC:CBD (nabiximols). Although conflicting opinions continue to exist, the majority of reviews in the past concluded that medical cannabis and cannabinoids play a significant role in the management of pain. Surprisingly, systematic studies to date do not support an "entourage effect" of the other plant constituents of cannabis (mainly terpenoids) in treatment of chronic pain. An emerging cannabinoid is CBD which is the only cannabinergic medication available at present that does not cause the typical "cannabis high"; it is not a "controlled substance". However, despite years of research, there is either no study or no well-conducted, head-to-head, comparison available between different cannabis cultivars, between pure cannabinoids, and between pure cannabinoids and extracts. It remains unanswered which is the optimal treatment approach.
A Systematic Review of Fibromyalgia and Recent Advancements in Treatment: Is Medicinal Cannabis a New Hope?
Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a pain disorder characterized by chronic widespread pain, fatigue, and sleep disturbance, in the absence of any well-defined underlying organic disease. The exact pathophysiology and the mechanism which links different factors related to the disease is still unknown. Due to unknown precise pathogenesis, the coexistence of other diseases, and overlapping clinical features, FMS diagnosis may be laborious. Various treatment strategies are used, only a few Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved, still we are facing challenges regarding effective treatment. Recently, medicinal cannabis has proven to be effective in chronic pain conditions such as osteoarthritis, neuropathic pain, and other non-cancer chronic pain. However, further research is needed about how the cannabinoid system works with the pain pathway. Using the fact that medicinal cannabis is effective in the treatment of chronic pain and certain rheumatic diseases, in this review, we aim to analyze the role of the cannabinoid system in fibromyalgia syndrome. We followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines in searching PubMed, MEDLINE (through PubMed), PubMed Central, and Google Scholar using keywords "fibromyalgia, chronic pain, cannabis, cannabinoids, pharmacotherapy, alternative therapy" and Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) words. After applying inclusion/exclusion criteria and checking for the quality assessment, 22 articles were retrieved and used for the analysis of the role of cannabis in the treatment of fibromyalgia. The two main compounds of cannabis with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties are cannabidiol (CBD) and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and their ratio determines the effect on various symptoms of FMS. We included studies regarding the use of cannabinoids in the treatment of fibromyalgia, investigating the use of nabilone, dronabinol (a synthetic analog of THC), Bedrocan (22.4 mg THC, <1 mg CBD), Bediol (13.4 mg THC, 17.8 mg CBD), and Bedrolite (18.4 mg CBD, <1 mg THC). In the era of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and opioid crisis, many adverse outcomes are observed in the patients suffering from FMS due to lack of any definitive treatment and promising outcomes from the known treatment options, which led to the need for effective and safer treatment alternatives. Although the studies reviewed in this article suggest that medical cannabis is a safe and effective treatment for fibromyalgia pain, several limitations regarding dosage, length of treatment, adverse effects, long-term follow-up, and dependence needs further investigation.
A Rare Case of Vaping-Induced Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum
Vaping is the process of inhaling an aerosol produced by heating a liquid or wax containing substances such as nicotine, cannabinoids (e.g., tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol), flavoring, and additives (e.g., glycerol, propylene glycol). The presence of air or gas in the mediastinum is pneumomediastinum. We present a rare case of vaping-induced spontaneous pneumomediastinum. A young 20-year-old female patient with a history of vaping and no past medical history presented with acute chest pain to an emergency room. The urine drug screen was positive for cannabinoids. Imaging studies - chest x-ray and computed tomography of the chest - showed pneumomediastinum. The patient was discharged after a day of observation and counseling to quit vaping.
Cannabidiol: Knowledge, Beliefs, and Experiences of Patients With Cancer
Cannabidiol (CBD) is purported to work for a variety of therapeutic indications. Interest in CBD products has significantly increased as patients with cancer seek ways to improve symptom control and quality of life.
CBD Promotes Oral Ulcer Healing via Inhibiting CMPK2-Mediated Inflammasome
Oral ulcer is a common oral inflammatory lesion accompanied by severe pain but with few effective treatments. Cannabidiol (CBD) is recently emerging for its therapeutic potential in a range of diseases, including inflammatory conditions and cancers. Here we show that CBD oral spray on acid- or trauma-induced oral ulcers on mice tongue inhibits inflammation, relieves pain, and accelerates lesion closure. Notably, the enrichment of genes associated with the NOD, LRR, and NLRP3 pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome pathway is downregulated after CBD treatment. The expression of cleaved-gasdermin D (GSDMD) and the percentage of pyroptotic cells are reduced as well. In addition, CBD decreases the expression of cytidine/uridine monophosphate kinase 2 (CMPK2), which subsequently inhibits the generation of oxidized mitochondria DNA and suppresses inflammasome activation. These immunomodulating effects of CBD are mostly blocked by peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) antagonist and partially antagonized by CB receptor antagonist. Our results demonstrate that CBD accelerates oral ulcer healing by inhibiting CMPK2-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation and pyroptosis, which are mediated mostly by PPARγ in the nucleus and partially by CB in the plasma membrane.
Temporomandibular Myofascial Pain Syndrome-Aetiology and Biopsychosocial Modulation. A Narrative Review
This review elaborates on the aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of temporomandibular (TMD) myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) regulated by psychosocial factors. MPS impairs functioning in society due to the accompanying pain. Directed and self-directed biopsychosocial profile modulation may be beneficial in the treatment of MPS. Moreover, nutrition is also a considerable part of musculoskeletal system health. A fruit and vegetable diet contributes to a reduction in chronic pain intensity because of its anti-inflammatory influence. Cannabidiol (CBD) oils may also be used in the treatment as they reduce stress and anxiety. A promising alternative treatment may be craniosacral therapy which uses gentle fascia palpation techniques to decrease sympathetic arousal by regulating body rhythms and release fascial restrictions between the cranium and sacrum. MPS is affected by the combined action of the limbic, autonomic, endocrine, somatic, nociceptive, and immune systems. Therefore, the treatment of MPS should be deliberated holistically as it is a complex disorder.
Natural Products and some semi-synthetic analogues as potential TRPV1 Ligands for attenuating Neuropathic pain
Natural products and leads inspired by them have acted as a probe for successful drug discovery for many decades. Pain is an obnoxious sensory and emotional experience associated with potential tissue damage. It affects the quality of life of patients to a great extent. Despite the availability of several agents targeting TRP receptors, none of them can proficiently alleviate neuropathic pain. TRPV1 is a prospective target for treating neuropathic pain as it is recognized to modulate the pain circuitry at the periphery and central level. In this review, we have discussed several natural molecules (such as Capsaicinoids, capsinoids, Piperine, Eugenol, Scutigeral, Ginsenosides, Cinnamaldehyde, Camphor, Shogaol, Gingerols, Zingerone, Allicin, Evodiamine, Allylisothiocyanate, Cannabidiol, Ricinoleic acid, Isovelleral, Capsazepine, Thapsigargin, Pellitorine, Yohimbine, Curcumin) and some semi-synthetic analogues that activate TRPV1 channels, and can be further harnessed consequently for the treatment of neuropathic pain.
Use and caregiver-reported efficacy of medical cannabis in children and adolescents in Switzerland
Evidence on the use and efficacy of medical cannabis for children is limited. We examined clinical and epidemiological characteristics of medical cannabis treatment and caregiver-reported effects in children and adolescents in Switzerland. We collected clinical data from children and adolescents (< 18 years) who received Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), or a combination of the two between 2008 and 2019 in Switzerland. Out of 205 contacted families, 90 agreed to participate. The median age at the first prescription was 11.5 years (interquartile range (IQR) 6-16), and 32 patients were female (36%). Fifty-one (57%) patients received CBD only and 39 (43%) THC. Patients were more likely to receive THC therapy if one of the following symptoms or signs were present: spasticity, pain, lack of weight gain, vomiting, or nausea, whereas seizures were the dominant indication for CBD therapy. Improvements were reported in 59 (66%) study participants. The largest treatment effects were reported for pain, spasticity, and frequency of seizures in participants treated with THC, and for those treated with pure CBD, the frequency of seizures. However, 43% of caregivers reported treatment interruptions, mainly because of lack of improvement (56%), side effects (46%), the need for a gastric tube (44%), and cost considerations (23%).Conclusions: The effects of medical cannabis in children and adolescents with chronic conditions are unknown except for rare seizure disorders, but the caregiver-reported data analysed here may justify trials of medical cannabis with standardized concentrations of THC or CBD to assess its efficacy in the young. What is Known: • The use of medical cannabis (THC and CBD) to treat a variety of diseases among children and adolescents is increasing. • In contrast to adults, there is no evidence to support the use of medical cannabis to treat chronic pain and spasticity in children, but substantial evidence to support the use of CBD in children with rare seizure disorders. What is New: • This study provides important insights into prescription practices, dosages, and treatment outcomes in children and adolescents using medical cannabis data from a real-life setting. • The effects of medical cannabis in children and adolescents with chronic conditions shown in our study support trials of medical cannabis for chronic conditions.
Therapeutic Potential for Cannabinoids in Sports Medicine: Current Literature Review
Cannabidiol and other cannabinoids are being used more frequently for sports medicine-related conditions. This review will help sports medicine clinicians answer questions that their athletes and active patients have about the potential effectiveness of cannabinoids on common sports medicine conditions. In the article, the authors compare cannabidiol and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol effects, noting the difference on the endocannabinoid and nonendocannabinoid receptors. The theoretical benefits of these two compounds and the current legality in the United States surrounding cannabidiol and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol use also are addressed.
Cannabidiol Inhibition of Murine Primary Nociceptors: Tight Binding to Slow Inactivated States of Na1.8 Channels
The nonpsychoactive phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to have analgesic effects in animal studies but little is known about its mechanism of action. We examined the effects of CBD on intrinsic excitability of primary pain-sensing neurons. Studying acutely dissociated capsaicin-sensitive mouse DRG neurons at 37°C, we found that CBD effectively inhibited repetitive action potential firing, from 15-20 action potentials evoked by 1 s current injections in control to 1-3 action potentials with 2 μm CBD. Reduction of repetitive firing was accompanied by a reduction of action potential height, widening of action potentials, reduction of the afterhyperpolarization, and increased propensity to enter depolarization block. Voltage-clamp experiments showed that CBD inhibited both TTX-sensitive and TTX-resistant (TTX-R) sodium currents in a use-dependent manner. CBD showed strong state-dependent inhibition of TTX-R channels, with fast binding to inactivated channels during depolarizations and slow unbinding on repolarization. CBD alteration of channel availability at various voltages suggested that CBD binds especially tightly [ (dissociation constant), ∼150 nm] to the slow inactivated state of TTX-R channels, which can be substantially occupied at voltages as negative as -40 mV. Remarkably, CBD was more potent in inhibiting TTX-R channels and inhibiting action potential firing than the local anesthetic bupivacaine. We conclude that CBD might produce some of its analgesic effects by direct effects on neuronal excitability, with tight binding to the slow inactivated state of Na1.8 channels contributing to effective inhibition of repetitive firing by modest depolarizations. Cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to inhibit pain in various rodent models, but the mechanism of this effect is unknown. We describe the ability of CBD to inhibit repetitive action potential firing in primary nociceptive neurons from mouse dorsal root ganglia and analyze the effects on voltage-dependent sodium channels. We find that CBD interacts with TTX-resistant sodium channels in a state-dependent manner suggesting particularly tight binding to slow inactivated states of Na1.8 channels, which dominate the overall inactivation of Na1.8 channels for small maintained depolarizations from the resting potential. The results suggest that CBD can exert analgesic effects in part by directly inhibiting repetitive firing of primary nociceptors and suggest a strategy of identifying compounds that bind selectively to slow inactivated states of Na1.8 channels for developing effective analgesics.
A cannabis oracle? Delphi method not a substitute for randomized controlled trials of cannabinoids as therapeutics
With millions of people using cannabinoids to treat a host of medical conditions, clinicians want guidance on how to utilize cannabinoids as pharmacotherapy in their practices. The Delphi method is a systematic, interactive forecasting method that aims to develop consensus best practices where guidelines are not available. BODY: A multidisciplinary group of global cannabinoid experts utilized a modified Delphi process to develop three protocols for the dosing and administration of cannabinoids to treat chronic pain. Two protocols recommend cannabidiol (CBD), for which there is limited evidence as an analgesic, starting well below doses required for other indications. Guidance on prescribing CBD for pain may demonstrate consensus recommendations based upon suboptimal evidence.
[Cannabis and cannabinoids for the treatment of acute and chronic pain]
Since the Act on the medical use of cannabis, at which cannabis-based medicines and cannabinoids became law, there has been an exponential increase in prescriptions for the acquisition of cannabis for medical purposes. The aim of this leading article is to compile and assess the currently available relevant clinical evidence for the use of cannabis and cannabinoids for treatment of acute and chronic pain. Based on the systematic literature review "Cannabis-Potential and risks (CAPRIS)" commissioned by the German Federal Ministry of Health and the recently published recommendations of the European Pain Federation EFIC, this article aims to give an orientation aid for the decision-making process in the clinical routine.
Exploring the use of cannabis as a substitute for prescription drugs in a convenience sample
The use of cannabis as medicine (CaM) both prescribed and non-prescribed has increased markedly in the last decade, mirrored in a global shift in cannabis policy towards a more permissive stance. There is some evidence that cannabis functions as a substitute for prescription drugs, particularly opioids; however, more knowledge is needed on the motives of substitution users, their patterns of use, and perceived effects of substitution use.
Cannabidiol (CBD) Use by Older Adults for Acute and Chronic Pain
Legalization of cannabidiol (CBD) products has ignited interest in clinical practice and research. One desired indication includes possible pain-relieving effects of CBD. The purposes of the current article are to (1) clarify terminology relevant to cannabinoids; (2) explain and understand the pharmacotherapeutics of CBD; (3) examine research of the current use of CBD by older adults for treating pain; (4) discuss safety considerations with using CBD products; and (5) provide best practice recommendations for clinicians as they advise their older adult patients. A review of the literature demonstrated mixed results on the efficacy of CBD in relieving pain in older adults. There is inconsistency in the labeling of over-the-counter CBD products that can result in safety issues and will require more federal quality control. Likewise, gaps in knowledge regarding safety and efficacy of CBD use in older adults are vast and require further research. [(7), 6-15.].
Tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol as an oromucosal spray in a 1:1 ratio: a therapeutic option for patients with central post-stroke pain syndrome?
Central pain after stroke due to brainstem infarction is very rare. Treatment is difficult and specific guidelines are lacking. This is the report of a 61-year-old female patient who, after a posterolateral left medulla oblongata insult with incomplete Wallenberg syndrome, subsequently developed a burning and tingling pain in the contralateral leg and a burning and shooting pain in the ipsilateral face in trigeminal branches 1 and 2. More than 3 years of therapy with amitriptyline, gabapentin, pregabalin and various grade II and III opioids was ineffective or showed intolerable side effects. The administration of tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol as an oromucosal spray in a 1:1 ratio improved the pain situation and quality of life quickly and permanently. The encouraging results in the present case may suggest that treatment with medical cannabis should be considered in similar cases when standard therapies are insufficient.
Selling cannabidiol products in Canada: A framing analysis of advertising claims by online retailers
In Canada, the legalization of cannabis has enabled cannabidiol (CBD) to become a popular commercial product, increasingly used for medical or therapeutic purposes. There are currently over one thousand CBD products available globally, ranging from oil extracts to CBD-infused beverages. Despite increased usage and availability, the evidence supporting the medical efficacy of CBD is limited. Anecdotal evidence suggests CBD sellers represent their products for medical use through direct medical claims or advice, which in Canada, is not allowed under the Cannabis Act without Health Canada approval. However, it is not clear the extent of sellers making health claims or other strategies used to promote medical usage of CBD. The objective of this study is to determine how CBD sellers advertise their products online to consumers.
A placebo-controlled investigation of the analgesic effects, abuse liability, safety and tolerability of a range of oral cannabidiol doses in healthy humans
Preclinical studies demonstrate that cannabidiol (CBD) elicits an antinociceptive response in animal models of neuropathic pain; in humans, limited data are available to support such analgesic effects. Few studies have examined CBD's analgesic effects when administered without other compounds, and little is known regarding dose-dependent effects in noncannabis users.
Specific phytocannabinoid compositions are associated with analgesic response and adverse effects in chronic pain patients treated with medical cannabis
Medical cannabis (MC) treatment for chronic pain is increasing, but evidence regarding short- and long-term efficacy and associated adverse effects (AEs) of the different cannabis plant components is limited. Most reports focus on two phytocannabinoids, (-)-Δ-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). This study, aimed to identify patterns of phytocannabinoid compositions associated with MC treatment response and with related AEs. Participants in this multicenter prospective cohort were patients with chronic non-cancer pain that were prescribed MC by physicians. Data was collected before MC treatment, at one month (short-term) and at 12 months (long-term). Simultaneously, liquid chromatography mass spectrometry identification and quantification of phytocannabinoids from the cultivars were performed. The monthly dose of each phytocannabinoid for each patient was z-scaled and clustered into ten groups to assess the difference in analgesic treatment response (≥30%/50% pain intensity reduction) and AEs rates. We identified ten clusters that had similar analgesic treatment response rates. However, there were significant differences in AEs rates both at short- and long-term. We identified specific phytocannabinoid compositions that were associated with overall AEs rates (5% compared to 53% at short-term and 44% at long-term) and with specific AEs rates such as MC related central nervous system, gastrointestinal and psychological AEs. To conclude, Evaluating only Δ9-THC or CBD is insufficient to find associations with MC related AEs. Therefore, comprehensive profiling of phytocannabinoids is needed to discover associations to related AEs and help physicians prescribe safer cannabis with less AEs while still relieving pain.
Consensus recommendations on dosing and administration of medical cannabis to treat chronic pain: results of a modified Delphi process
Globally, medical cannabis legalization has increased in recent years and medical cannabis is commonly used to treat chronic pain. However, there are few randomized control trials studying medical cannabis indicating expert guidance on how to dose and administer medical cannabis safely and effectively is needed.
Biomechanical Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD), the Major Constituents of Cannabis, in a Sprague Dawley Rat Achilles Tendon Surgical Repair Model: A Pilot Study
The use of cannabis is common among athletes and the US population at large. Cannabinoids are currently being evaluated as alternatives to opioid medications for chronic pain management. However, the effects of recreational and/or medical use of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) on musculoskeletal injury and healing remain largely unknown.
Utilization and Impact of Complementary and Alternative Medicines in Symptomatic Autoimmune Hepatitis Patients
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use has become increasingly common. It is also prevalent in patients with chronic liver disease, but the scope, depth, and safety of use is not well known.
Cannabidiol use and effectiveness: real-world evidence from a Canadian medical cannabis clinic
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a primary component in the cannabis plant; however, in recent years, interest in CBD treatments has outpaced scientific research and regulatory advancement resulting in a confusing landscape of misinformation and unsubstantiated health claims. Within the limited results from randomized controlled trials, and lack of trust in product quality and known clinical guidelines and dosages, real-world evidence (RWE) from countries with robust regulatory frameworks may fill a critical need for patients and healthcare professionals. Despite growing evidence and interest, no real-world data (RWD) studies have yet investigated patients' reports of CBD impact on symptom control in the common expression of pain, anxiety, depression, and poor wellbeing. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of CBD-rich treatment on symptom burden, as measured with a specific symptom assessment scale (ESAS-r).
The endocannabinoid system, cannabis, and cannabidiol: Implications in urology and men's health
The endocannabinoid system is a neuromodulatory system responsible for partial regulation of cognitive and emotional processes in the human central nervous system such as behavior, mood disorders, and neurologic disorders such as epilepsy. The endocannabinoid system is also prevalent throughout the peripheral nervous system and human body and its receptors and signaling pathways are present and active in areas including the male and female reproductive tracts and organ systems such as the urologic and gastrointestinal system.
Targeting the endocannabinoid system for management of HIV-associated neuropathic pain: A systematic review
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and antiretroviral therapy can independently induce HIV-associated neuropathic pain (HIV-NP). There is a dearth of drugs or therapeutic modalities that can alleviate HIV-NP. Smoked cannabis has been reported to improve pain measures in patients with neuropathic pain. Cannabis, phytocannabinoids, and the endocannabinoids such N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide; AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), produce some of their effects via cannabinoid receptors (CBRs). Endocannabinoids are degraded by various enzymes such as fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase. We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, clinicaltrials.gov and clinicaltrialsregister.eu using various key words and their combinations for published papers that studied HIV-NP and cannabis, cannabinoids, or endocannabinoids up to 27th December 2020. All original research articles that evaluated the efficacy of molecules that modulate the endocannabinoid system (ECS) for the prevention and/or treatment of pain in HIV-NP animal models and patients with HIV-NP were included. The PubMed search produced a total of 117 articles, whereas the Google Scholar search produced a total of 9467 articles. Amongst the 13 articles that fulfilled the inclusion criteria 11 articles were found in both searches whereas 2 articles were found in Google Scholar only. The clinicaltrials.gov and clinicaltrialsregister.eu searches produced five registered trials of which three were completed and with results. Ten preclinical studies found that the endocannabinoids (2-AG and AEA), synthetic mixed CB1R/CB2R agonist WIN 55,212-2, a CB2R-selective phytocannabinoid β-caryophyllene, synthetic CB2R-selective agonists (AM1710, JWH015, JWH133 and Gp1a, but not HU308); FAAH inhibitors (palmitoylallylamide, URB597 and PF-3845) and a drug combination of indomethacin plus minocycline, which produces its effects in a CBR-dependent manner, either prevented the development of and/or attenuated established HIV-NP. Two clinical trials demonstrated greater efficacy of smoked cannabis over placebo in alleviating HIV-NP, whereas another clinical trial demonstrated that cannabidivarin, a cannabinoid that does not activate CBRs, did not reduce HIV-NP. The available preclinical results suggest that targeting the ECS for prevention and treatment of HIV-NP is a plausible therapeutic option. Clinical evidence shows that smoked cannabis alleviates HIV-NP. Further research is needed to find out if non-psychoactive drugs that target the ECS and are delivered by other routes than smoking could be useful as treatment options for HIV-NP.
Integrative Medicine: Cannabis and Cannabis-Related Drugs
is a genus of flowering herbs in the Cannabaceae family. Federal law defines dried plant material preparations of the subspecies as . The term refers to all products derived from plants. The active compounds in cannabis are cannabinoids, which include delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). THC is the psychoactive component, whereas CBD has no psychoactive effects. There are three Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved cannabis-related drugs. Dronabinol and nabilone (Cesamet) are approved for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting; cannabidiol (Epidiolex) is approved for two pediatric epilepsy syndromes. FDA-approved cannabis-related drugs, marijuana, and cannabis formulations have been studied for the management of other conditions and symptoms (eg, cachexia, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, chronic pain, muscle spasticity) and have shown varying effectiveness. CBD formulations have been shown to be effective for certain forms of epilepsy. However, marijuana, cannabis-containing products, and cannabis-derived products in general are not approved by the FDA for any indication. Adverse effects include impaired executive function, cognition, and driving. Physicians can recommend use of marijuana under medical marijuana laws but cannot prescribe it, as it is classified as a Schedule I controlled substance. Laws regulating use of marijuana and cannabis products vary among states.
Availability and Promotion of Cannabidiol (CBD) Products in Online Vape Shops
Vaping products containing cannabidiol (CBD), a cannabis-derived compound used in wellness products and available in all 50 US states, were recently implicated in outbreaks of poisonings. Little is known about the commercial availability of CBD products in vape shops (i.e., stores that sell e-cigarettes). To document the availability and marketing of CBD products in online vape shops, in June 2020, we used the Google Chrome browser without cached data to collect the first two pages of search results generated by five Google queries ( = 100 search results) indicative of shopping for vaping products (e.g., "order vapes"). We then determined whether and what type of CBD products could be mail-ordered from the returned websites, and whether any explicit health claims were made about CBD. Over a third of the search results ( = 37; 37.0%) directed to vape shops that allowed visitors to also mail-order CBD. These shops sold 12 distinct categories of CBD products-some with direct analogs of tobacco or cannabis products including CBD cigarettes, edibles, flowers, pre-rolled joints, and vapes. Two vape shops made explicit health claims of the therapeutic benefits of CBD use, including in the treatment of anxiety, inflammation, pain, and stress. The abundance and placement of CBD in online vape shops suggests a growing demand and appeal for CBD products among e-cigarette users. Additional surveillance on the epidemiology of CBD use and its co-use with tobacco is warranted.
Cannabidiol Product Dosing and Decision-Making in a National Survey of Individuals with Fibromyalgia
Many people with fibromyalgia use cannabidiol (CBD) products despite limited rigorous evidence of benefit. In the current study, we conducted a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional survey of N = 878 people with fibromyalgia to investigate naturalistic decision making around CBD product choices, use patterns, and dosing. We subgrouped participants based on use of high-THC cannabis (HTC) in the past year (yes/no) as previous studies have shown that HTC use influences CBD use patterns. The study population was largely female (93.6%), white (91.5%) and 55.5 years old on average. Participants typically purchased CBD products online or at dispensaries, with purchasing driven by personal research (63%) rather than endorsement from medical professionals (16%). Overall, tinctures and topicals were the most common administration routes endorsed. However, participants in the past-year HTC group used inhalation routes far more frequently than those who did not (39.8% vs 7.1%). Among participants using CBD tinctures or edibles, the average dose per session was 16 mg and 24 to 27 mg per day, although approximately one-third of participants did not know what dose of CBD they used. Participants using both inhalation and non-inhalation administration routes reported greater symptom relief than those using non-inhalation routes alone. However, there was no consistent relationship between CBD dose and reported effects, possibly due to expectancy effects around CBD products or interindividual variability. Our granular investigation reveals variability of CBD product dosing practices for fibromyalgia, and how past-year HTC use influences CBD product use. Future clinical trials should investigate the potential benefits of low-dose (<50mg) botanical CBD products. Perspective: This article shows that past-year HTC use strongly influences how people with fibromyalgia choose and use CBD products. Participants typically used <50 mg/d of CBD, and there was no relationship between higher CBD dose and reported therapeutic benefit. Future clinical trials should investigate therapeutic benefits of low dose CBD.
Health Claims About Cannabidiol Products: A Retrospective Analysis of U.S. Food and Drug Administration Warning Letters from 2015 to 2019
Cannabidiol (CBD) products are increasingly available to consumers in the United States and are subject to regulation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). CBD products cannot be marketed as unapproved new drugs with claims of therapeutic benefit. In addition, because CBD is the active ingredient in a FDA-approved CBD product, Epidiolex, CBD cannot be marketed as, or in, food products or dietary supplements. The FDA has issued Warning Letters to promote voluntary regulatory compliance. These letters provide insights as to the types of violations for CBD products detected in the U.S. market. The goal of this retrospective study was to content analyze Warning Letters issued by the FDA to identify illicit marketing of CBD products. Warning Letters issued by the FDA between 2015 and 2019 were content analyzed using a deductive approach. We extracted year of issuance, issuing office, and claim types that are currently prohibited by the FDA, including (i) unapproved new drug, (ii) misbranded drug, (iii) false and/or misleading, (iv) FDA-approved/endorsed, (v) dietary supplement, and (vi) adulterated food product. In addition, we documented the disease or conditions the product claimed to affect, pharmacological effects, and location of violation. Of the 39 Warning Letters issued, 97% were for violations made on company websites and 56% were for social media accounts. Almost all letters (97%) cited violations of marketing CBD as an unapproved new drug. These illicit therapeutic claims were made for >125 unique health problems, including cancer (87.2%), diabetes (71.8%), inflammation (66.7%), pain (66.7%), and arthritis (66.7%). The majority of letters (79.5%) also cited illicit marketing of CBD as a dietary supplement or food product. CBD was promoted as having 16 unique pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory (53.8%), anticancer (43.6%), and antipsychotic (30.8%). CBD products have been unlawfully advertised online as unauthorized drugs with health claims that promote therapeutic benefits and as dietary supplements. Efforts are needed to regulate and monitor illicit advertising so consumers are not misled about the risks and benefits of CBD use.
Modulatory Potential of Cannabidiol on the Opioid-Induced Inflammatory Response
Opioids are effective analgesics; however, there are many negative consequences of chronic use. One important side effect of chronic opioid use is the continuous engagement of the immune response that can exacerbate chronic pain. The opioid, morphine, initiates a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling cascade that drives the activation of NOD-, LRR-, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome proteins, resulting in cytokine production and effectively creating a positive feedback loop for continuous TLR4 activation. In addition to driving cytokine production, morphine drives changes in proinflammatory lipid signaling. The alteration of both cytokine and lipid signaling systems by morphine suggests that its chronic use leads to a pathological immune response that would benefit from targeted therapy. Engaging the endogenous cannabinoid system has shown therapeutic benefit, particularly regarding its anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Promising preclinical and clinical investigations suggest that cannabidiol (CBD) is an effective adjuvant for treatment of symptoms of opioid use disorders; however, the mechanism through which CBD drives this outcome is unclear. One potential source of insight into this mechanism is in how CBD regulates immune regulators such as cytokines and lipid signaling systems, including endocannabinoids and related immune-responsive lipids. In this review, we outline the immune response to chronic opioid use as well as CBD in the context of a lipopolysaccharide-induced immune response and speculate on the mechanism of CBD as a modulator of chronic opioid-induced immune system dysregulation.
[New targeted compounds-biosynthesis of phytocannabinoids]
Phytocannabinoids are bioactive terpenoids that are exclusive to Cannabis sativa L. The main pharmacologically active phytocannabinoids are Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, both target endogenous cannabinoid receptors. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol have extensive therapeutic potential due to their participation in many physiological and pathological processes in human body by activating the endocannabinoid system. At present, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and their analogues or combination preparations are used to treat epilepsy, vomiting in patients with cancer chemotherapy, spasticity in multiple sclerosis and relieve neuropathic pain and pain in patients with advanced cancer. With the further exploration of the application value of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol as well as the increasing demand for standardization of pharmaceutical preparations, it is imminent to achieve large-scale production of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in the pharmaceutical industry. In this article, pharmacological research progress of phytocannabinoids in recent years, biosynthetic pathways of phytocannabinoids and the mechanism of key enzymes as well as various product development strategies of cannabinoids in pharmaceutical industry are reviewed. By exploring the potential of synthetic biology as an alternative strategy for the source of phytocannabinoids, it will provide a theoretical basis for the research and development of microbial engineering for cannabinoids synthesis, and promote the large-scale production of medicinal cannabinoids.
A Mapping Literature Review of Medical Cannabis Clinical Outcomes and Quality of Evidence in Approved Conditions in the USA from 2016 to 2019
In 2017, a National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM) report comprehensively evaluated the body of evidence regarding cannabis health effects through the year 2016. The objectives of this study are to identify and map the most recently (2016-2019) published literature across approved conditions for medical cannabis and to evaluate the quality of identified recent systematic reviews, published following the NASEM report. Following the literature search from 5 databases and consultation with experts, 11 conditions were identified for evidence compilation and evaluation: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, autism, cancer, chronic noncancer pain, Crohn's disease, epilepsy, glaucoma, human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS, multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease, and posttraumatic stress disorder. A total of 198 studies were included after screening for condition-specific relevance and after imposing the following exclusion criteria: preclinical focus, non-English language, abstracts only, editorials/commentary, case studies/series, and non-U.S. study setting. Data extracted from studies included: study design type, outcome definition, intervention definition, sample size, study setting, and reported effect size. Few completed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified. Studies classified as systematic reviews were graded using the Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews-2 tool to evaluate the quality of evidence. Few high-quality systematic reviews were available for most conditions, with the exceptions of MS (9 of 9 graded moderate/high quality; evidence for 2/9 indicating cannabis improved outcomes; evidence for 7/9 indicating cannabis inconclusive), epilepsy (3 of 4 graded moderate/high quality; 3 indicating cannabis improved outcomes; 1 indicating cannabis inconclusive), and chronic noncancer pain (12 of 13 graded moderate/high quality; evidence for 7/13 indicating cannabis improved outcomes; evidence from 6/7 indicating cannabis inconclusive). Among RCTs, we identified few studies of substantial rigor and quality to contribute to the evidence base. However, there are some conditions for which significant evidence suggests that select dosage forms and routes of administration likely have favorable risk-benefit ratios (i.e., epilepsy and chronic noncancer pain). The body of evidence for medical cannabis requires more rigorous evaluation before consideration as a treatment option for many conditions, and evidence necessary to inform policy and treatment guidelines is currently insufficient for many conditions.
Cannabis, a Miracle Drug with Polyvalent Therapeutic Utility: Preclinical and Clinical-Based Evidence
L. is an annual herbaceous dioecious plant which was first cultivated by agricultural human societies in Asia. Over the period of time, various parts of the plant like leaf, flower, and seed were used for recreational as well as therapeutic purposes. The main chemical components of are termed as cannabinoids, among them the key psychoactive constituent is Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol (CBD) as active nonpsychotic constituent. Upon doing extensive literature review, it was found that cannabis has been widely studied for a number of disorders. Very recently, a pure CBD formulation, named Epidiolex, got a green flag from both United States Food and Drug Administration and Drug Enforcement Administration for 2 rare types of epilepsies. This laid a milestone in medical cannabis research. This review intends to give a basic and extensive assessment, from past till present, of the ethnological, plant, chemical, pharmacological, and legal aspects of . Further, this review contemplates the evidence the studies obtained of cannabis components on Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, emesis, epilepsy, chronic pain, and cancer as a cytotoxic agent as well as a palliative therapy. The assessment in this study was done by reviewing in extensive details from studies on historical importance, ethnopharmacological aspects, and legal grounds of from extensive literature available on the scientific databases, with a vision for elevating further pharmaceutical research to investigate its total potential as a therapeutic agent.
The Effects of Cannabinoids on Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines: A Systematic Review of Studies
Some cannabinoids have been identified as anti-inflammatory agents; however, their potential therapeutic or prophylactic applications remain controversial. The aim of this systematic review was to provide a timely and comprehensive insight into cannabinoid-mediated pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine responses in preclinical studies. A systematic search was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Scopus. Eligible studies where cannabinoids had been evaluated for their effect on inflammation in animal models were included in the analysis. Data were extracted from 26 of 4247 eligible full text articles, and risk of bias was assessed using the SYstematic Review Center for Laboratory animal Experimentation (SYRCLE) tool. Studies examined cannabidiol (CBD; =20); cannabigerol (CBG; =1); delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; =2); THC and CBD separately (=1); and THC and CBD in combination (=2). Tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and interferon gamma were the most commonly studied pro-inflammatory cytokines and their levels were consistently reduced after treatment with CBD, CBG, or CBD+THC, but not with THC alone. The association between cannabinoid-induced anti-inflammatory response and disease severity was examined. In 22 studies where CBD, CBG, or CBD in combination with THC were administered, a reduction in the levels of at least one inflammatory cytokine was observed, and in 24 studies, some improvements in disease or disability were apparent. THC alone did not reduce pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (=3), but resulted in improvements in neuropathic pain in one study. This review shows that CBD, CBG, and CBD+THC combination exert a predominantly anti-inflammatory effect , whereas THC alone does not reduce pro-inflammatory or increase anti-inflammatory cytokines. It is anticipated that this information could be used to inform human clinical trials of cannabinoids, focusing on CBD and CBG to reduce inflammation across a range of pathophysiological processes.
Novel cannabidiol aspartame combination treatment (JW-100) significantly reduces ISGA score in atopic dermatitis: Results from a randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled interventional study
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common and chronic inflammatory skin disease that erupts periodically. Although the negative impact of the disorder on overall quality of life has been well established, new treatments for AD are still needed. Various studies have reported on cannabidiol's effectiveness in relieving pain and easing inflammation while not presenting major health risks.
Can Cannabidiol Affect the Efficacy of Chemotherapy and Epigenetic Treatments in Cancer?
The success of cannabinoids with chronic neuropathic pain and anxiety has been demonstrated in a multitude of studies. With the high availability of a non-intoxicating compound, cannabidiol (CBD), an over-the-counter medication, has generated heightened interest in its use in the field of oncology. This review focuses on the widespread therapeutic potential of CBD with regard to enhanced wound healing, lowered toxicity profiles of chemotherapeutics, and augmented antitumorigenic effects. The current literature is sparse with regard to determining the clinically relevant concentrations of CBD given the biphasic nature of the compound's response. Therefore, there is an imminent need for further dose-finding studies in order to determine the optimal dose of CBD for both intermittent and regular users. We address the potential influence of regular or occasional CBD usage on therapeutic outcomes in ovarian cancer patients. Additionally, as the development of chemoresistance in ovarian cancer results in treatment failure, the potential for CBD to augment the efficacy of conventional chemotherapeutic and epigenetic drugs is a topic of significant importance. Our review is focused on the widespread therapeutic potential of CBD and whether or not a synergistic role exists in combination with epigenetic and classic chemotherapy medications.
Developing a real-world evidence base for prescribed cannabis in the United Kingdom: preliminary findings from Project Twenty21
The therapeutic potential of medical cannabis to treat a variety of conditions is becoming increasingly recognised. Globally, a large number of countries have now legalised cannabis for medical uses and a substantial number of patients are able to access their medications. Yet in the UK, where medical cannabis was legalised in November 2018, only a handful of NHS prescriptions have been written, meaning that most patients are unable to access the medicine. Reasons for this are manyfold and include the perceived lack of clinical evidence due to the challenges of studying medical cannabis through randomised controlled trials. In order to develop the current evidence base, the importance of incorporating real-world data (RWD) to assess the effectiveness and efficacy of medical cannabis has gradually become recognised. The current paper provides a detailed outline of Project Twenty21 (T21), the UK's first medical cannabis registry, launched in August 2020. We provide the rationale for T21 and describe the methodology before reporting the characteristics of the 'first patients' enrolled in the registry. We describe the health status of all patients enrolled into the project during its first 7 months of operation and the sociodemographic characteristics and primary presenting conditions for these patients, as well as details of the medical cannabis prescribed to these individuals. By 12th March 2021, 678 people had been enrolled into T21; the majority (64%) were male and their average age was 38.7 years (range = 18-80). The most commonly reported primary conditions were chronic pain (55.6%) and anxiety disorders (32.0%) and they reported high levels of multi-morbidity, including high rates of insomnia and depression. We also present preliminary evidence from 75 patients followed up after 3 months indicating that receipt of legal, prescribed cannabis was associated with a significant increase in self-reported health, assessed using the visual analogue scale of the EQ-5D-5L (Cohen's d = .77, 95% CI = .51-1.03). Our initial findings complement reports from other large-scale databases globally, indicating that the current RWD is building up a pattern of evidence. With many clinicians demanding better and faster evidence to inform their decisions around prescribing medical cannabis, the current and future results of T21 will expand the existing evidence base on the effectiveness of cannabis-based medical products (CBMPs).
Authorization Patterns, Safety, and Effectiveness of Medical Cannabis in Quebec
Despite increasing demand for data, little is known about the authorization patterns, safety, and effectiveness of medical cannabis products. We conducted a 2 year observational study of adult patients who were legally authorized a medical cannabis product from a single licensed producer; we captured and analyzed authorized cannabis use patterns by cannabinoid profile (tetrahydrocannabinol [THC]-dominant; cannabidiol [CBD]-dominant; and balanced (THC:CBD) and clinical outcomes using standardized outcome measures every 3 months for 12 months at a network of medical cannabis clinics in Quebec, Canada. We recruited 585 patients (average age 56.5 years), of whom 61% identified as female and 85% reported pain as their primary complaint. Over 12 months, there was a significant increase in the number of products authorized (=2.59, =0.01). The proportion of authorizations for a THC-dominant or CBD-dominant product increased relative to the proportion of authorizations for a balanced (THC:CBD) product (all <0.01). Symptom improvement over time was observed for pain, tiredness, drowsiness, anxiety, and well-being. Patients authorized THC-dominant products exhibited less symptom improvement for anxiety and well-being relative to those authorized CBD-dominant or balanced (THC:CBD) products. Medical cannabis was well tolerated across all product profiles. These real-world data reveal changes in medical cannabis authorization patterns and suggest that symptom improvement may vary by cannabinoid profile over 12 months of follow-up.
Pain response to cannabidiol in induced acute nociceptive pain, allodynia, and hyperalgesia by using a model mimicking acute pain in healthy adults in a randomized trial (CANAB I)
Preclinical studies have demonstrated the analgesic potential of cannabidiol (CBD). Those suggesting an effect on pain-processing receptors have brought CBD back into focus. This study assessed the effect of CBD on acute pain, hyperalgesia, and allodynia compared with placebo. Twenty healthy volunteers were included in this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, crossover study assessing pain intensities (using numeric rating scale), secondary hyperalgesia (von Frey filament), and allodynia (dry cotton swab) in a well-established acute pain model with intradermal electrical stimulation. The authors compared the effect of 800-mg orally administered CBD on pain compared with placebo. They further examined the effect on hyperalgesia and allodynia. Cannabidiol whole blood levels were also measured. Pain ratings (mean ± SD) did not differ significantly after CBD application compared with placebo (5.2 ± 0.7 vs 5.3 ± 0.7, P-value 0.928), neither did the areas of hyperalgesia and allodynia differ significantly after CBD application compared with placebo (hyperalgesia 23.9 ± 19.2 cm2 vs 27.4 ± 17.0 cm2, P-value 0.597; allodynia 16.6 ± 13.1 cm2 vs 17.3 ± 14.1 cm2, P-value 0.884). The CBD whole blood level (median, first to third quartile) was 2.0 µg/L (1.5-5.1) 60 minutes and 5.0 µg/L (4.0-10.4) 130 minutes after CBD application. Although the oral application of 800-mg CBD failed to show a significant effect, it is important to focus future research on different dosing, routes of administration, and CBD as a part of multimodal treatment strategies before negating its effects on acute pain.
The effects of cannabidiol and analgesic expectancies on experimental pain reactivity in healthy adults: A balanced placebo design trial
Despite its frequent use for pain relief, no experimental pain research has tested the analgesic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in humans. The goal of this study was to experimentally test the effects of CBD and expectancies for receiving CBD on human pain reactivity. Using a crossover, 2 × 2 factorial balanced placebo design, drug administration (given inactive substance or given active CBD) and verbal instruction sets (told inactive substance or told active CBD) were experimentally manipulated. Fifteen healthy adults each completed four separate experimental sessions. Participants were randomly assigned to different counterbalanced manipulation conditions at each session: control (told inactive-given inactive); expectancy (told active CBD-given inactive); drug (told inactive-given active CBD); and expectancy + drug (told active CBD-given active CBD). Primary outcomes were pain threshold, tolerance, intensity, unpleasantness, conditioned pain modulation (CPM), and offset analgesia (OA). There was a significant main effect of instructions on OA, such that the OA response was significantly larger when participants were told that they received CBD, regardless of drug content. Pain unpleasantness was significantly reduced in the drug, expectancy, and expectancy + drug conditions, relative to the control condition. The drug and expectancy conditions separately improved CPM, whereas the expectancy + drug and control conditions produced the lowest CPM change scores. We did not detect significant effects for pain threshold, tolerance, or intensity. Our results indicated that separate pain outcomes can be differentially affected by CBD and/or expectancies for receiving CBD. Future investigations of the psychological and pharmacological mechanisms underlying CBD analgesia are warranted. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
A Multicriteria Decision Analysis Comparing Pharmacotherapy for Chronic Neuropathic Pain, Including Cannabinoids and Cannabis-Based Medical Products
Pharmacological management of chronic neuropathic pain (CNP) still represents a major clinical challenge. Collective harnessing of both the scientific evidence base and clinical experience (of clinicians and patients) can play a key role in informing treatment pathways and contribute to the debate on specific treatments (e.g., cannabinoids). A group of expert clinicians (pain specialists and psychiatrists), scientists, and patient representatives convened to assess the relative benefit-safety balance of 12 pharmacological treatments, including orally administered cannabinoids/cannabis-based medicinal products, for the treatment of CNP in adults. A decision conference provided the process of creating a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) model, in which the group collectively scored the drugs on 17 effect criteria relevant to benefits and safety and then weighted the criteria for their clinical relevance. Cannabis-based medicinal products consisting of tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol (THC/CBD), in a 1:1 ratio, achieved the highest overall score, 79 (out of 100), followed by CBD dominant at 75, then THC dominant at 72. Duloxetine and the gabapentinoids scored in the 60s, amitriptyline, tramadol, and ibuprofen in the 50s, methadone and oxycodone in the 40s, and morphine and fentanyl in the 30s. Sensitivity analyses showed that even if the pain reduction and quality-of-life scores for THC/CBD and THC are halved, their benefit-safety balances remain better than those of the noncannabinoid drugs. The benefit-safety profiles for cannabinoids were higher than for other commonly used medications for CNP largely because they contribute more to quality of life and have a more favorable side effect profile. The results also reflect the shortcomings of alternative pharmacological treatments with respect to safety and mitigation of neuropathic pain symptoms. Further high-quality clinical trials and systematic comprehensive capture of clinical experience with cannabinoids is warranted. These results demonstrate once again the complexity and multimodal mechanisms underlying the clinical experience and impact of chronic pain.
Effects of Cannabidiol Chewing Gum on Perceived Pain and Well-Being of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients: A Placebo-Controlled Crossover Exploratory Intervention Study with Symptom-Driven Dosing
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders. Its pathophysiology is diverse and variable, involving disturbed gut-brain interactions, altered motility and secretion, visceral hypersensitivity, increased intestinal permeability, immune activation, and changes in gut microbiota. Complaints experienced by patients suffering from IBS and its co-morbidities strongly impair quality of life (QoL), and available treatments are often unsatisfactory. Anecdotal reports and preclinical data suggest that the endocannabinoid system and functionally related mechanisms could offer treatment targets. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a candidate agent of interest with a broad molecular target profile and the absence of psychoactive properties. In 32 female IBS patients, we explored the effect of a chewing gum formulation containing 50 mg CBD on abdominal pain and perceived well-being in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over trial. Chewing gums were used on-demand guided by pain symptoms with a maximum of six per day. Pain intensity was assessed by a visual analogue scale (scale 0.0-10.0), and QoL was evaluated with the IBS-36 questionnaire. There was no statistically significant difference in pain scores between CBD and placebo at a group level. Subgroup and individual analyses showed a highly variable picture. No indications were found for symptom-driven intake, which also remained lower than expected overall. With the current design, based on the assumption that IBS patients would adjust their intake to their perceived symptom relief, no differences at the group level were found between CBD and placebo gum in pain scores and the number of gums used. The low use of the gums also indicates that the benefits experienced by these patients generally did not outweigh practical disadvantages such as prolonged chewing throughout the day. The very high intra- and inter-individual variation in IBS symptoms warrant future trials that are more personalized, for example by applying an N-of-1 (rotating) design with individualized dose titration.
Use and Perceptions of Cannabidiol Products in Canada and in the United States
This study aimed to characterize use and perceptions of cannabidiol (CBD) products. Participants aged 16-65 years in Canada (=15,042) and the United States (=30,288) completed measures on prevalence and patterns of CBD product use and perceptions of CBD oil as part of the 2019 International Cannabis Policy Study online survey. Past 12-month CBD product use was significantly more prevalent among respondents in the United States (26.1%) than in Canada (16.2%). Consumers in the United States and Canada reported using a range of CBD products, including drops (46.3% vs. 47.3%, respectively), topicals (26.0% vs. 16.7%), edibles/foods (23.8% vs. 17.6%), vape oils (18.9% vs. 13.3%), capsules (13.3% vs. 16.7%), and dried flower (10.1% vs. 16.1%). CBD was most commonly reported for management of pain, anxiety, and depression. Over half of CBD consumers in both countries reported that CBD oil was beneficial for health. Use of CBD products is common in both the United States and Canada, primarily to manage self-reported health conditions for which there is little or no evidence of efficacy. Clearer public health messaging regarding the therapeutic effects of CBD is warranted.
A Large-Scale Naturalistic Examination of the Acute Effects of Cannabis on Pain
Cannabis use for pain relief is commonly reported, yet laboratory studies and clinical trials suggest that cannabinoids are weak analgesics, and it is unclear whether perceived reductions in pain from before to after cannabis use relate to factors such as dose, method of administration, phytocannabinoid content, or the age or gender of the user. We determined whether inhalation of cannabis decreased self-reported pain ratings as well as whether user gender, age, time, method of administration, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) content, or dose of cannabis contribute to changes in these ratings. We also examined whether tolerance may develop to the analgesic effects of cannabis over time. Archival data were obtained from Strainprint, a medical cannabis app that allows patients to track symptoms before and after using different strains and doses of cannabis. Latent change score models and multilevel models were used to analyze data from 131,582 sessions in which inhaled cannabis was used to treat "muscle pain," "joint pain," or "nerve pain." For all three pain symptoms, severity ratings decreased significantly after cannabis use. Women reported higher baseline and postcannabis pain severity than did men, and men reported larger decreases in pain than did women. Neither THC nor CBD content nor their interaction predicted reductions in pain ratings. However, vaping was associated with larger reductions in joint pain ratings than was smoking, and lower doses were associated with larger reductions in nerve pain ratings. Additionally, for all three pain symptoms, the dose of cannabis used to manage pain increased significantly over time. Inhaled cannabis reduces self-reported pain severity by ∼42-49%. However, these reductions appear to diminish across time, and patients use larger doses across time, suggesting that analgesic tolerance develops with continued use.
Antidepressant and Anxiolytic Effects of Medicinal Cannabis Use in an Observational Trial
Anxiety and depressive disorders are highly prevalent. Patients are increasingly using medicinal cannabis products to treat these disorders, but little is known about the effects of medicinal cannabis use on symptoms of anxiety and depression. The aim of the present observational study was to assess general health in medicinal cannabis users and non-using controls with anxiety and/or depression. Participants (368 Cannabis Users; 170 Controls) completed an online survey assessing anxiety and depressive symptoms, cannabis product use, sleep, quality of life, and comorbid chronic pain. Participants that completed this baseline survey were then invited to complete additional follow-up surveys at 3-month intervals. Baseline differences between Cannabis Users and Controls were assessed using independent-samples -tests and generalized linear mixed effects models were used to assess the impact of initiating cannabis product use, sustained use, or discontinuation of use on anxiety and depressive symptoms at follow-up. Medicinal cannabis use was associated with lower self-reported depression, but not anxiety, at baseline. Medicinal cannabis users also reported superior sleep, quality of life, and less pain on average. Initiation of medicinal cannabis during the follow-up period was associated with significantly decreased anxiety and depressive symptoms, an effect that was not observed in Controls that never initiated cannabis use. Medicinal cannabis use may reduce anxiety and depressive symptoms in clinically anxious and depressed populations. Future placebo-controlled studies are necessary to replicate these findings and to determine the route of administration, dose, and product formulation characteristics to optimize clinical outcomes.
Integrated Management of Multiple Sclerosis Spasticity and Associated Symptoms Using the Spasticity-Plus Syndrome Concept: Results of a Structured Specialists' Discussion Using the Workmat Methodology
Multiple sclerosis (MS) treatment has radically improved over the last years; however, MS symptom management is still challenging. The novel Spasticity-Plus syndrome was conceptualized to frame several spasticity-related symptoms that can be addressed together with broad-spectrum medication, such as certain cannabinoid-based drugs. The aim of this project was to gain insight into Spanish neurologists' clinical experience on MS spasticity and associated symptoms, and to assess the acknowledgment and applicability of the Spasticity-Plus syndrome concept in patients with MS. Ten online meetings were conducted using the Workmat methodology to allow structured discussions. Fifty-five Spanish neurologists, experts in MS management, completed and discussed a set of predefined exercises comprising MS symptom assessment and its management in clinical practice, MS symptoms clustering in clinical practice, and their perception of the Spasticity-Plus syndrome concept. This document presents the quantitative and qualitative results of these discussions. The specialists considered that polytherapy is a common concern in MS and that simplifying the management of MS spasticity and associated manifestations could be useful. They generally agreed that MS spasticity should be diagnosed before moderate or severe forms appear. According to the neurologists' clinical experience, symptoms commonly associated with MS spasticity included spasms/cramps (100% of the specialists), pain (85%), bladder dysfunction (62%), bowel dysfunction (42%), sleep disorders (42%), and sexual dysfunction (40%). The multiple correspondence analysis revealed two main symptom clusters: spasticity-spasms/cramps-pain, and ataxia-instability-vertigo. Twelve out of 16 symptoms (75%) were scored >7 in a 0-10 QoL impact scale by the specialists, representing a moderate-high impact. The MS specialists considered that pain, spasticity, spasms/cramps, bladder dysfunction, and depression should be a treatment priority given their frequency and chance of therapeutic success. The neurologists agreed on the usefulness of the new Spasticity-Plus syndrome concept to manage spasticity and associated symptoms together, and their experience with treatments targeting the cannabinoid system was satisfactory. The applicability of the new concept of Spasticity-Plus in MS clinical practice seems possible and may lead to an integrated management of several MS symptoms, thus reducing the treatment burden of disease symptoms.
Cannabidiol as a Treatment for Chronic Pain: A Survey of Patients' Perspectives and Attitudes
Cannabis products have become easily available and accessible after decriminalization of cannabis for recreational and medicinal use in many states. Cannabidiol (CBD) has been of increasing interest to patients and is being used to self-medicate a variety of ailments. However, very limited information is available to patients and providers to form an educated opinion regarding its indicated use to treat the many conditions this substance has been implied to be helpful for. The aim of this survey was to learn about participants' attitudes and views towards cannabis-based medicine (CBM) with a focus on perception of "CBD" and its potential role for pain management.
A Review of the Potential Use of Pinene and Linalool as Terpene-Based Medicines for Brain Health: Discovering Novel Therapeutics in the Flavours and Fragrances of Cannabis
"Medicinal cannabis" is defined as the use of cannabis-based products for the treatment of an illness. Investigations of cannabis compounds in psychiatric and neurological illnesses primarily focus on the major cannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-THC), which are hypothesised to benefit multiple illnesses manifesting cognitive impairment, neurodegeneration and neuro-inflammation, as well as chronic pain, epilepsy and post-traumatic stress disorder, respectively. The cannabis plant contains >500 compounds, including terpenes responsible for the flavour and fragrance profiles of plants. Recently, research has begun providing evidence on the potential use of certain plant-derived terpenes in modern medicine, demonstrating anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects of these compounds. This review examined the effects of two key terpenes, pinene and linalool, on parameters relevant to neurological and psychiatric disorders, highlighting gaps in the literature and recommendations for future research into terpene therapeutics. Overall, evidence is mostly limited to preclinical studies and well-designed clinical trials are lacking. Nevertheless, existing data suggests that pinene and linalool are relevant candidates for further investigation as novel medicines for illnesses, including stroke, ischemia, inflammatory and neuropathic pain (including migraine), cognitive impairment (relevant to Alzheimer's disease and ageing), insomnia, anxiety, and depression. Linalool and pinene influence multiple neurotransmitter, inflammatory and neurotrophic signals as well as behaviour, demonstrating psycho-activity (albeit non-intoxicating). Optimising the phytochemical profile of cannabis chemovars to yield therapeutic levels of beneficial terpenes and cannabinoids, such as linalool, pinene and CBD, could present a unique opportunity to discover novel medicines to treat psychiatric and neurological illnesses; however, further research is needed.
Cannabinoids for SARS-CoV-2 and is there evidence of their therapeutic efficacy?
To combat the coronaviruses and their novel variants, therapeutic drugs and the development of vaccines that are to be effective throughout human life are urgently needed. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) acts as a modulator in the activation of the microcirculation, immune system, and autonomic nervous system, along with controlling pharmacological functions such as emotional responses, homeostasis, motor functions, cognition, and motivation. The ECS contains endogenous cannabinoids, cannabinoid receptor (CBRs), and enzymes that regulate their biosynthesis, transport, and degradation. Moreover, phytocannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoids that mimic the action of endocannabinoids also play an essential role in the modulation of the ECS. Cannabinoids, the main constituents of cannabis ( L.), are therapeutic compounds that have received international attention in the health field due to their therapeutic properties. Recently, they have been tested for the treatment of COVID-19 due to their antiviral properties. Indeed, cannabinoid-type compounds, and in particular cannabidiol (CBD), isolated from glandular trichomes found in the calyx of cannabis flowers with reported antiviral properties is hypothesized to be a therapeutic option in the ministration of SARS-CoV-2 consorted with COVID-19 disease. The relevant articles were determined from the database search published mainly in Web of Science, Google scholar, PubMed, Crossref, and ClinicalTrials.gov database during the pandemic period. The articles were evaluated for the therapeutic potentials, mechanisms of action of cannabinoids, the roles of the ECS in the immune system, impact of cannabinoids in SARS-CoV-2 septic, especially if they address the application of cannabinoids as drugs for the curability and management of SARS-CoV-2 and its novel variants. Although the evidence needed to be considered using cannabinoids in the control and treatment of viral diseases is currently in its infancy, they already offer an opportunity for clinicians due to their effects in relieving pain, improving appetite, and improving childhood epilepsy, especially in cancer and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/AIDS) patients. In addition to these, the most recent scientific evidence emphasizes their use in the treatment of the coronavirus infected patients. In brief, all preclinic and clinic studies that have been reported show that, through the cannabinoid system, cannabinoids, particularly CBD, have many mechanisms that are effective in the treatment of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2. Thus, more extensive studies are necessary in this area to fully identify the effects of cannabinoids on SARS-CoV-2.
Evaluation of Patient Reported Safety and Efficacy of Cannabis From a Survey of Medical Cannabis Patients in Canada
With the medical use of cannabis permitted in Canada since 2001, patients seek to use this botanical drug to treat a range of medical conditions. However, many healthcare practitioners express the need for further scientific evidence around the use of medical cannabis. This real-world evidence study aimed to address the paucity of scientific data by surveying newly registered medical cannabis patients, before beginning medical cannabis treatment, and at one follow up 6 weeks after beginning medical cannabis treatment. The goal was to collect data on efficacy, safety and cannabis product type information to capture the potential impact medical cannabis had on patient-reported quality of life (QOL) and several medical conditions over a 6-week period using validated questionnaires. The 214 participants were mainly male (58%) and 57% of the population was older than 50. The most frequently reported medical conditions were recurrent pain, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, sleep disorders [including restless leg syndrome (RLS)], and arthritis and other rheumatic disorders. Here we report that over 60% of our medical cannabis cohort self-reported improvements in their medical conditions. With the use of validated surveys, we found significant improvements in recurrent pain, PTSD, and sleep disorders after 6 weeks of medical cannabis treatment. Our findings from patients who reported arthritis and other rheumatic disorders are complex, showing improvements in pain and global activity sub-scores, but not overall changes in validated survey scores. We also report that patients who stated anxiety as their main medical condition did not experience significant changes in their anxiety after 6 weeks of cannabis treatment, though there were QOL improvements. While these results show that patients find cannabis treatment effective for a broad range of medical conditions, cannabis was not a remedy for all the conditions investigated. Thus, there is a need for future clinical research to support the findings we have reported. Additionally, while real-world evidence has not historically been utilized by regulatory bodies, we suggest changes in public policy surrounding cannabis should occur to reflect patient reported efficacy of cannabis from real-world studies due to the uniqueness of medical cannabis's path to legalization.
Quality of Life and a Surveillant Endocannabinoid System
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is an important brain modulatory network. ECS regulates brain homeostasis throughout development, from progenitor fate decision to neuro- and gliogenesis, synaptogenesis, brain plasticity and circuit repair, up to learning, memory, fear, protection, and death. It is a major player in the hypothalamic-peripheral system-adipose tissue in the regulation of food intake, energy storage, nutritional status, and adipose tissue mass, consequently affecting obesity. Loss of ECS control might affect mood disorders (anxiety, hyperactivity, psychosis, and depression), lead to drug abuse, and impact neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's, Parkinson, Huntington, Multiple, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) and neurodevelopmental (autism spectrum) disorders. Practice of regular physical and/or mind-body mindfulness and meditative activities have been shown to modulate endocannabinoid (eCB) levels, in addition to other players as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). ECS is involved in pain, inflammation, metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunctions, general immune responses (asthma, allergy, and arthritis) and tumor expansion, both/either in the brain and/or in the periphery. The reason for such a vast impact is the fact that arachidonic acid, a precursor of eCBs, is present in every membrane cell of the body and on demand eCBs synthesis is regulated by electrical activity and calcium shifts. Novel lipid (lipoxins and resolvins) or peptide (hemopressin) players of the ECS also operate as regulators of physiological allostasis. Indeed, the presence of cannabinoid receptors in intracellular organelles as mitochondria or lysosomes, or in nuclear targets as PPARγ might impact energy consumption, metabolism and cell death. To live a better life implies in a vigilant ECS, through healthy diet selection (based on a balanced omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids), weekly exercises and meditation therapy, all of which regulating eCBs levels, surrounded by a constructive social network. Cannabidiol, a diet supplement has been a major player with anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antioxidant activities. Cognitive challenges and emotional intelligence might strengthen the ECS, which is built on a variety of synapses that modify human behavior. As therapeutically concerned, the ECS is essential for maintaining homeostasis and cannabinoids are promising tools to control innumerous targets.
Treatment with Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol in Multiple Sclerosis: Influence on the Autonomy Profile according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common cause of non-traumatic neurological disability in young adults. It has effects at different levels: physical, emotional, psychological, cognitive and social, with a great variety of signs and symptoms. In particular, spasticity contributes to reducing the motor performance of patients with MS, causing pain, reduction in distance walked and limitations in social life. We present the case of a 39-year-old woman with MS. She was treated with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol and the outcome was assessed with the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health core set framework.